CD 525 Presentation 4 4 2 1


hi my name is Kaitlyn Sweeney my name is Keionta Hawkins and my name is Kaitlin Seabourne Today we’re going to be talking to you about audiograms and the different types
of hearing loss we, will be starting off with audiograms. As you can see as you can see an
audiogram is a graph that shows a person’s hearing it shows a threshold
which measures the lowest frequency someone can hear 50% of the time this is
known as the threshold the x-axis tells us our frequency or pitch which is how
high or low a sound is and the y-axis tells us the intensity or loudness of
the sound to the right is a picture of a blank audiogram the red and black
straight lines indicate where normal hearing would be a hearing loss would be
plotted. As you learn from the video an audiogram
helps speech-language pathologists in the audiologist determine the type and
severity of hearing loss the three different types can be conductive,
sensorineural and mixed we’ll be diving into those a little bit more later. To
the right you can see the different levels of hearing loss. This is another more detailed picture of
an audiogram explaining where the different levels of hearing loss would
be seen on the audiogram. The first type of hearing loss that we
will be discussing is conductive hearing loss. A conductive hearing loss happens when
the sound cannot get through the outer and middle ear a person experiencing
this may not be able to hear soft sounds and louder sounds may be muffle. There are many causes of conductive
hearing loss as seen on this slide some of the most common causes include middle
ear fluid resulting from a cold or allergies several ear infections or
excess cerumen in the ear. Now that we have covered some causes
let’s look into different treatment options a conductive hearing loss is
most commonly treated through surgery or medicine if someone has a conductive
hearing loss after experiencing hearing loss from head trauma chronic ear
infections middle ear fluid tumors absence of the ear canal failure to open
ear canal or malformation of the middle ear structures surgery may be the best
option acute infections may simply require medication. Another treatment option would be to
look towards amplification systems some options include a bone conduction
hearing aid a surgically implanted device such as a BAHA or a hearing aid a
bone conduction hearing aid will create vibrations that move across the skull to
the inner ear. A BAHA is a bone anchored hearing aid, a BAHA stimulates the
cochlea by transmitting the sound waves through the bone in our skull lastly a
hearing aid is a small device that you wear behind your ear. The three basic
parts are a microphone amplifier and speaker near the bottom right part of
your screen a picture of a BAHA is shown the left side represents the BAHA system
while the right side shows where the sound processor is placed. This is a picture of a conductive
hearing loss on an audiogram we can see that X and y-axis with our intensity and
frequency at the top a conductive hearing loss is diagnosed when bone
conduction thresholds are 15 or more decibels higher than the air conduction
thresholds bone conduction is plotted by a bracket in air conduction is seen
using the X this is a hearing loss in the mild to moderate range because the
hearing loss is 21 to 55 decibels lower than normal limits. Kaitlin will now be talking to you about
sensorineural hearing loss. The second type of hearing loss we are
going to be discussing is sensorineural hearing loss. Sensorineural hearing
loss or SNHL happens after inner ear damage problems with the nerve pathways
from your inner ear to your brain can also cause SNHL soft sounds may be hard to hear and even louder sounds can be unclear or may sound muffled. This is the
most common type of permanent hearing loss. Most of the time medicine or
surgery cannot fix SNHL. Hearing aids may help you hear. On this slide you will find several
causes of sensorineural hearing loss. These include exposure to loud noises
such as gunshots, head trauma viruses, autoimmune inner ear disease,
aging, malformation of the ear structures Meziere’s disease, tumors or otosclerosis.
Otosclerosis is known as a disorder where tiny gross form in the middle ear
this results in a lack of vibration of small bones in the inner ear when it is
stimulated by sound a sensorineural hearing loss can affect the patient in
different ways depending on if it is in both or in just one ear if it is present
in both ears the person may have difficulty understanding speech even if
it is at a loud volume. If the hearing loss is in one ear the person may have
difficulty locating sounds as the hearing while background noises is
present. Since a sensorineural hearing loss is
irreversible it is important to look at different treatment options one of the
options would be a hearing aid. Hearing aids do however require some level of
useable hearing. Another option for this type of hearing loss would be a cochlear
implant. This is electronic device that bypasses the damaged inner ear and it
stimulates the nerve endings directly. Hearing aids amplify sound while
cochlear implants convert sound waves into electrical impulses. This is a picture of a sensory neural
hearing loss on an audiogram a sensory- neural hearing loss is defined by both
air and bone conduction thresholds being lower than normal air conduction is
marked by a circle and bone conduction is marked by an arrow facing left the
sloping line indicates the hearing loss The final type of hearing loss we have to discuss is mixed hearing loss. Mixed hearing loss is the type of
hearing loss that has both conductive and sensorineural causes mixed hearing loss
is caused by a combination of conductive damage to the outer or middle ear and
sensory nerve damage to the inner ear and or auditory nerve the symptoms of a
mixed hearing loss are reduced hearing in one of both ears Causes for conductive aspect and mix
hearing loss could be earwax fluid in the middle ear and infection
perforated eardrum and malformation of the outer or middle ear these factors
combined with so much genetics over exposure to loud noise taking certain
medications and the normal aging process or result in mixed hearing loss conductive hearing loss is treated
medically or surgically on the other hand sensorineural hearing loss is
typically treated with hearing aids since mix hearing loss is a combination
of both as a result, treatment will also be a combination of both medical or
surgical treatments and the use of hearing aids. There are some cases where
implants or special types of hearing aids are needed for the treatment of
mixed hearing loss this is the picture of an audiogram that
shows mix hearing loss in the left ear as you can see both the air conduction
and bone conduction are in the abnormal range with the air and bone gap being
greater than 10 decibels. We hope that you have enjoyed our
presentation and have learned a lot of useful information on audiograms and
hearing loss. Thank you

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