Chemical castration | Wikipedia audio article

Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac
drugs, whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer, or otherwise. Unlike surgical castration, where the gonads
are removed through an incision in the body, chemical castration does not remove organs,
nor is it a form of sterilization. Chemical castration is generally considered
reversible when treatment is discontinued, although permanent effects in body chemistry
can sometimes be seen, as in the case of bone density loss increasing with length of use
of DMPA. In May 2016, The New York Times reported that
a number of countries use chemical castration on rapists and pedophiles, often in return
for reduced sentences.==Effects=====On men===
When used on men, these drugs can reduce sex drive, compulsive sexual fantasies, and capacity
for sexual arousal. Life-threatening side effects are rare, but
some users show increases in body fat and reduced bone density, which increase long-term
risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. They may also experience gynecomastia (development
of larger-than-normal mammary glands in males) as seen in Alan Turing’s case.===On women===When used on women, the effects are similar,
though there is little research about chemically lowering women’s sex drive or female-specific
anaphrodisiacs, since most research focuses on the opposite, but anti-androgenic hormone
regimens would lower testosterone in women which can impact sex drive or sexual response. These drugs also deflate the breast glands
and expand the size of the nipple. Also seen is a sudden shrink in bone mass
and discoloration of the lips, reduced body hair, and muscle mass.==
Treatment for sex offenders==The first use of chemical castration occurred
in 1944, when diethylstilbestrol was used with the purpose of lowering men’s testosterone. The antipsychotic agent benperidol is sometimes
used to diminish sexual urges in people who display inappropriate sexual behavior, and
can likewise be given by depot injection. But benperidol does not affect testosterone
and is therefore not a castration agent. Chemical castration is often seen as an easier
alternative to life imprisonment or the death penalty because it allows the release of sex
offenders while reducing or eliminating the chance that they reoffend.In 1981, in an experiment
by P. Gagne, 48 males with long-standing histories of sexually deviant behaviour were given medroxyprogesterone
acetate for as long as 12 months. Forty of those subjects were recorded as to
have diminished desires for deviant sexual behaviour, less frequent sexual fantasies,
and greater control over sexual urges. The research recorded a continuation of this
more positive behaviour after the administration of the drug had ended with no evidence of
adverse side effects and recommended medroxyprogesterone acetate along with counselling as a successful
method of treatment for serial sex offenders.===Scientific critique===
Citing the observation that spaying causes female animals to stop mating in the same
species as castration cause male animals to stop mating, and that in the animal species
where females continue their mating behaviour after being spayed the males also continue
to mate after being castrated, there are scientists who argue that it makes no biological sense
to assume that any treatment that emulates castration would remove sex drive in men but
not in women. These scientists argue that these observations,
along with the fact that humans are animals and subject to evolution, show that it is
flawed to think that male sexuality would be treatable by medication if female sexuality
is not.Some criminologists argue that the appearance of a lower recidivism rate in male
sex offenders who take chemical castration treatment than in those who do not can be
explained by factors other than biological effects of the medication. One hypothesis is that men who accept the
negative effects of hormonal treatment in exchange for shorter prison sentence are distinct
in that they value freedom from incarceration higher than men who rather stay in prison
for a longer time than face the side effects of chemical castration. These criminologists explain apparently lower
recidivism as an artifact of men who accept chemical castration being more engaged in
hiding the evidence for reoffending, and that paroling such offenders constitute a risk
of releasing criminals who commit as many new crimes as others but are better at hiding
it. These criminologists also argue that police
investigators treating castrated men as less likely to reoffend than non-castrated men
may cause an investigation bias and self-fulfilling prophecy, and that men who sell some of their
prescribed medicines on the black market for drugs get a hidden income that improve their
ability to afford measures to hide recidivism that is not available to men without such
prescriptions.Some neurologists acknowledge that testosterone plays a role in sexual arousal
but that reducing sex drive will likely not reduce inappropriate sex behaviour. These researchers argue that since a weaker
internal signal in the brain means a higher requirement for external stimulation to create
a feedback loop that tires the brain circuits out as in orgasm and lead to satisfaction,
a reduction of the internal stimulation from hormones would make the required external
stimulation stronger and also more specific, as weaker signals involve narrower ranges
of other brain functions in their loops. These scientists therefore argue that the
biological (as opposed to sociological) effect of reduced testosterone is to make it more
difficult and not easier to use masturbation without pornography or other socially acceptable
substitutes to manage remaining sex drive in a former offender, and that many community
persons (both male and female) find that a lower initial arousal makes it more difficult
to orgasm by masturbation without pornography or with non-preferred stimulation.===Argentina===
In March 2010, Guillermo Fontana of CNN reported that officials in Mendoza, a province in Argentina,
approved the use of voluntary chemical castration for rapists, in return for reduced sentences.===Australia===
In 2010, a repeat child sex offender who had been subject to chemical castration was accused
of inappropriately touching and kissing a young girl. He was found not guilty by a jury, which was
not informed of the context of his previous offenses.===Europe===
The drug cyproterone acetate has been commonly used for chemical castration throughout Europe. It resembles the drug MPA used in America.In
the United Kingdom, computer scientist Alan Turing, famous for his contributions to mathematics
and computer science, was a homosexual who was forced to undergo chemical castration
in order to avoid imprisonment in 1952. At the time, homosexual acts between males
were still illegal and homosexual orientation was widely considered to be a mental illness
that could be treated with chemical castration. Turing experienced side effects such as breast
enlargement and bloating of the physique. He died two years later, with the inquest
returning a verdict of suicide, although recent research has cast doubt on this result. In 2009, the then British Prime Minister Gordon
Brown issued a public apology for the “appalling” treatment of Turing after an online petition
gained 30,000 signatures and international recognition. He was given a posthumous Royal Pardon in
December 2013. In the 1960s, German physicians used antiandrogens
as a treatment for sexual paraphilia.In 2008, an experimental intervention program was launched
in three Portuguese prisons: Carregueira (Belas, Sintra), Paços de Ferreira and Funchal. The program developers note the voluntary
nature of the program a crucial factor in its success. They initially planned to cover ten inmates
per prison, contemplating a possible enlargement to other prisons in the future. The program also included a rehabilitation
component.On September 25, 2009, Poland legislated forcible chemical castration of child molesters. This law came into effect on June 9, 2010;
therefore in Poland “anyone guilty of raping a child under the age of 15 can now be forced
to submit to chemical and psychological therapy to reduce sex drive at the end of a prison
term”.On April 30, 2010, a man in the United Kingdom found guilty of attempting to murder
a 60-year-old woman in order to abduct and rape her two granddaughters agreed to undergo
chemical castration as part of the terms of his sentence.On March 6, 2012, Moldova legislated
forcible chemical castration of child molesters; the law came into effect on July 1, 2012.On
June 5, 2012, Estonia passed a law to allow forced chemical castration of sex offenders.In
October and November 2013, the Macedonian authorities were working on developing a legal
framework and standard procedure for implementation of chemical castration that would be used
for convicted child molesters. The castration is intended to be voluntarily,
where as for the child molesters that repeat the criminal act it should be mandatory.===India===
After the outrage following the gang rape of a woman in Delhi, the Government has submitted
a draft proposing chemical castration along with an imprisonment of up to 30 years for
rape convicts as part of the anti-rape law in India. The ministry is preparing a detailed bill
and the recommended changes are under review. Government is also planning to re-define the
Juvenile Act and lower their age. One of the accused in the rape case is a juvenile
and aged a few months less than 18 years. A view has been expressed by a section that
only those below 15 years should be described as juvenile.===Indonesia===
In 2016, the Indonesian President Joko Widodo introduced a presidential regulation to allow
chemical castration to be handed down as a punishment to child sex offenders and pedophiles. The regulation alters the contents of the
2002 Law on Child Protection.===Israel===
In May 2009, two brothers from Haifa—convicted child molesters—agreed to undergo chemical
castration to avoid committing further crimes.===New Zealand===
In New Zealand, the antilibidinal drug cyproterone acetate is sold under the name Androcur. In November 2000 convicted paedophile Robert
Jason Dittmer attacked a victim while on the drug. In 2009 a study into the effectiveness of
the drug by Dr David Wales for the Corrections Department found that no research had been
conducted in New Zealand into the effectiveness and such trials were “ethically and practically
very difficult to carry out.”===
Russia===In October 2011, the Russian parliament approved
a law that allows a court-requested forensic psychiatrist to prescribe the chemical castration
of convicted sex offenders who have harmed children under the age of 14.===South Korea===
In July 2011, South Korea enacted a law allowing judges the power to sentence sex offenders
who have attacked children under the age of 16 to chemical castration. The law also allows for chemical castration
to be ordered by a Ministry of Justice committee. On May 23, 2012, a serial sex offender legally
called Park in the court case was ordered by the committee to undergo this treatment
after his most recent attempted offense. On January 3, 2013, a South Korean court sentenced
a 31-year-old man to 15 years in jail and chemical castration, the country’s first-ever
chemical castration sentence. In 2017, feminist-backed Moon Jaein administration
expanded the sentencing to include all forms of rapes and sexual assault cases against
women, including attempted rape. In South Korea, taking pictures of women without
their consent, even in public, is considered to be criminal sexual assault, punishable
by a fine of under 10 million won and up to 5 years’ imprisonment. In July 2017 an amendment to the law was voted
on in favour of allowing for chemical castration of people taking such photographs. The amendment did not pass.===United States===
In 1966, John Money became the first American to employ chemical castration by prescribing
medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, the base ingredient now used in DMPA) as a treatment
for a patient dealing with pedophilic urges. The drug has thereafter become a mainstay
of chemical castration in America. Despite its long history and established use,
the drug has never been approved by the FDA for use as a treatment for sexual offenders.California
was the first U.S. state to specify the use of chemical castration as a punishment for
child molestation, following the passage of a modification to Section 645 of the California
penal code in 1996. This law stipulates that anyone convicted
of child molestation with a minor under 13 years of age may be treated with DMPA if they
are on parole after their second offense and that offenders may not reject the treatment.The
passage of this law led to similar laws in other states such as Florida’s Statute Section
794.0235 which was passed into law in 1997. As in California, treatment is mandatory after
a second offense. At least seven other states, including Georgia,
Iowa, Louisiana, Montana, Oregon, Texas and Wisconsin, have experimented with chemical
castration. In Iowa, as in California and Florida, offenders
may be sentenced to chemical castration in all cases involving serious sex offenses. On June 25, 2008, following the Supreme Court
ruling in Kennedy v. Louisiana that the execution of child rapists where the victim was not
killed was ruled unconstitutional, Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal signed Senate Bill 144,
allowing Louisiana judges to sentence convicted rapists to chemical castration.====Objections====
The American Civil Liberties Union of Florida opposes the administration of any drug that
is dangerous or has significant irreversible effect as an alternative to incarceration;
however, they do not oppose the use of antiandrogen drugs for sex offenders under carefully controlled
circumstances as an alternative to incarceration. Law professor John Stinneford has argued that
chemical castration is a cruel and unusual punishment because it exerts control over
the mind of sex offenders to render them incapable of sexual desire and subjects them to the
physical changes caused by the female hormones used.Some people have argued that, based on
the 14th Amendment, the procedure fails to guarantee equal protection: although the laws
mandating the treatment do so without respect to gender, the actual effect of the procedure
disproportionately falls upon men. In the case of voluntary statutes, the ability
to give informed consent is also an issue; in 1984, the U.S. state of Michigan’s court
of appeals held that mandating chemical castration as a condition of probation was unlawful on
the grounds that the drug medroxyprogesterone acetate had not yet gained acceptance as being
safe and reliable and also due to the difficulty of obtaining informed consent under these
circumstances.==Treatment for cancer patients==
A major medical use of chemical castration is in the treatment of hormone-dependent cancers,
such as some prostate cancer, where it has largely replaced the practice of surgical
castration.Chemical castration involves the administration of antiandrogen drugs, such
as cyproterone acetate, flutamide, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists.==See also==
Leuprorelin Neutersol
Nonsurgical neutering alternatives Triptorelin

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