Dalmatia (Roman province) | Wikipedia audio article


Dalmatia was a Roman province. Its name is derived from the name of an Illyrian
tribe called the Dalmatae, which lived in the central area of the eastern coast of the
Adriatic Sea. It encompassed the northern part of present-day
Albania, much of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo and Serbia, thus covering
an area significantly larger than the current Croatian region of Dalmatia. Originally this region was called Illyria
(in Greek) or Illyricum (in Latin). The province of Illyricum was dissolved and
replaced by two separate provinces: Dalmatia and Pannonia.==History==
The region which run along the coast of the Adriatic Sea and extended inland on the Dinaric
Alps was called Illyria by the Greeks. Originally the Romans also called it Illyria. Later they called it Illyricum. The Romans fought three Illyrian Wars (229
BC, 219/8 BC and 168 BC) mainly against the kingdom of the Ardiaei in the south of the
region. In 168 BC they abolished this kingdom, divided
it into three republics. The area became a Roman protectorate. The central and northern area of the region
engaged in piracy and raided north-eastern Italy. In response to this, Octavian (who later became
the emperor Augustus) conducted a series of campaigns in Illyricum (35-33 BC). The area became the Roman province of Illyricum
probably in 27 BC. It was a senatorial provinces. Due to troubles in the northern part of the
region in 16-10 BC, it became an imperial province. The administrative organisation of Illyricum
was carried out late in the reign of Augustus (27 BC-14 AD) and early in the reign of Tiberius
(14- 37 AD).Due to Octavian having subdued the more inland region of Pannonia (along
the mid-course of the River Danube), the Romans changed the name of the coastal area to Dalmatia. Illyricum was composed of Dalmatia and Pannonia. The earliest writing which indicates that
the province of Illyricum comprised Dalmatia and Pannonia is the mention by Velleius Paterculus
of Gaius Vibius Postumus as the military commander of Dalmatia under Germanicus in 9 AD, towards
the end of the Batonian War. In 6-9 AD there was a large scale rebellion
in the province of Illyricum, the Bellum Batonianum (Batonian War).The province of Illyricum was
eventually dissolved and replaced by two smaller provinces: Dalmatia (the southern area) and
Pannonia (the northern and Danubian area). It is unclear when this happened. Kovác noted that an inscription on the base
of a statue of Nero erected between 54 and 68 AD attests that it was erected by the veteran
of a legion stationed in Pannonia and argues that this is the first epigraphic evidence
that a separate Pannonia existed at least since the reign of Nero.[73][74] However,
Šašel-Kos notes that an inscription attests a governor of Illyricum under the reign of
Claudius (43-51 AD) and in a military diploma published in the late 1990s, dated July 61
AD, units of auxiliaries from the Pannonian part of the province were mentioned as being
stationed in Illyricum. Some other diplomas attest the same. This was during the reign of Nero (51-68 AD). Therefore, Šašel-Kos supports the notion
that the province was dissolved during the reign of Vespasian (79-89 AD).In 337, when
Constantine the Great died, the Roman Empire was partitioned among his sons. The empire was divided into three praetorian
prefectures: the Galliae, Italia, Africa et Illyricum and Oriens. The size of the provinces had been decreased
and their number doubled by Diocletian. The provinces were also grouped in dioceses. Dalmatia became one of the seven provinces
of the diocese of Pannonia. Initially, it was under the praetorian preacture
of Italy, Africa and Illyricum. It seems that the three dioceses of Macedonia,
Dacia and Pannonia were first grouped together in a separate praetorian prefecture in 347
by Constans by removing them from the praetorian prefecture of Italy, Africa and Illyricum
(which then became the praetorian prefecture of Italy and Africa) or that this praetorian
prefecture was formed in 343 when Constans appointed a prefect for Italy.Sirmium, the
future capital of the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum, was the birthplace of the Roman
Emperor Diocletian. After he abdicated, he built Diocletian’s
Palace in Salona (modern Split, Croatia).German historian Theodore Mommsen wrote (in his The
Provinces of the Roman Empire) that coastal Dalmatia and its islands were fully romanized
and Latin-speaking by the 4th century. The Croatian historian Aleksandar Stipčević
writes that analysis of archaeological material from that period has shown that the process
of romanization was rather selective. While urban centers, both coastal and inland,
were almost completely romanized, the situation in the countryside was completely different. Despite the Illyrians being subject to a strong
process of acculturation, they continued to speak their native language, worship their
own gods and traditions, and follow their own social-political tribal organization which
was adapted to Roman administration and political structure only in some necessities.===Last days of Roman Dalmatia and Ostrogoth
takeover===In 454 Marcellinus, a military commander in
Dalmatia, rebelled against Valentinian III, the emperor of the west. He seized control of Dalmatia and governed
it independently until his death in 468. Julius Nepos became the governor of Dalmatia
even though he was a relative of the emperor of the east, Leo I the Thracian, and Dalmatia
was under the western part of the Roman empire. Dalmatia remained an autonomous area. In 474 Leo I elevated Nepos as emperor of
the western part of the empire in order to depose Glycerius, a usurper emperor. Nepos deposed the usurper, but was in turn
deposed in 475 by Orestes, who made his son Romulus Augustus emperor in the west. Leo I refused to recognise him and still held
Julius Nepos as the emperor of the west. Romulus Augustus was deposed in 476 by Odoacer,
who proclaimed himself king of Italy. Nepos remained in Dalmatia and continued to
govern it until he was assassinated in 480. Ovidia, a military commander, was in charge
of Dalmatia for a few months. However, Odoacer used Nepos’ murder as a pretext
to invade Dalmatia, defeated Ovidia and annexed Dalmatia to his kingdom of Italy. In 488 Zeno, the new emperor of the east,
sent Theodoric the Great, the king of the Ostrogoths to Italy. Zeno sent him to depose Odoacer. He also wanted to get rid of the Ostrogoths,
who were Roman allies and were settled in the eastern part of the empire, but were becoming
restless and difficult to manage. Theodoric fought a four-year war in Italy,
killed Odoacer, settled his people in Italy and established the Ostrogothic Kingdom there. Dalmatia and the rest of the former diocese
of Pannonia came under the Ostrogothic Kingdom.==List of governors of Dalmatia==
Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus—c. AD 41
Marcus Pompeius Silvanus Staberius Flavinus—67/68-70 Lucius Plotius Pegasus—70/71-72/73
Lucius Funisulanus Vettonianus—79/80-81/82 Gaius Cilnius Proculus—Between 87 and 97
Quintus Pomponius Rufus—92/93-94-95 Macer—98/99-99/100
Gaius Minicius Fundanus—Between 96 and 118 Publius Coelius Balbinus Vibullius Pius—After
137 Marcus Aemilius Papus—147-150
Titus Prifernius Paetus Rosianus Geminus—153-156 Sextus Aemilius Equester—159-162
Publius Julius Scapula Tertullus—164-169 Marcus Didius Julanus—c. 175-177
Gaius Vettius Sabinianus Julius Hospes—c. 177-178
Gaius Arrius Antoninus—c. 178-179 Lucius Aurelius Gallus—c. 179-182
Pollienus Auspex—After 180 Lucius Junius Rufinus Proculianus—c. 182-184
Marcus Cassius Apronianus—After 184 Marcus Nummius Umbrius Primus Senecio Albinus—212-214
Gaius Avitus Alexianus—c. 214-216 Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus—c. 223/225
Gaius Fulvius Maximus—Between 222 and 235==Notes====
Bibliography==Appian, the Foreign Wars, The Illyrian wars,
Book 10, The Illyirian Wars; Loeb Classical Library, Vol II, Books 8.2-12, Harvard University
Press, 1912; ISBN 978-0674990043 [1] Barnes, T., The New Empire of Diocletian and
Constantine, Harvard University Press, 1982; ISBN 978-0674280663
Barnes, T., Constantine: Dynasty, Religion and Power in the Later Roman Empire (Blackwell
Ancient Lives), Wiley-Blackwell, reprint edition, 2013; ISBN 978-1118782750
Cassius Dio, Roman History, Vol 6, Books 51-65 (Loeb Classical Library), Loeb, 1989; ISBN
978-0674990920 [2] MacGeorge, P., Late Roman Warlords. Oxford University Press, 2002; ISBN 0-19-925244-0. Notitia Dignitarum, BiblioLife, 2009; ISBN
978-1113370082 Papazoglu, Fanula (1978). The Central Balkan Tribes in pre-Roman Times:
Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians. Amsterdam: Hakkert.==Sources and external links==
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