Delivery drone | Wikipedia audio article


A delivery drone is an autonomous vehicle,
often a UAV, used to transport packages, food or other goods.==Legislation==In February 2014, the prime minister and cabinet
affairs minister of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) announced that the UAE planned to launch
a fleet of UAVs for civilian purposes. Plans were for the UAVs to use fingerprint
and eye-recognition systems to deliver official documents such as passports, ID cards and
licenses, and supply emergency services at accidents. A battery-powered prototype four-rotor UAV
about half a meter across was displayed in Dubai.In the United States, initial attempts
at commercial use of UAVs were blocked by FAA regulation. In June 2014, the FAA published a document
that listed activities not permitted under its regulations, including commercial use,
which the organization stated included “delivering packages to people for a fee” or offered as
part of a “purchase or another offer.” In August 2016, updated FAA rules were enacted. The new rules included guidelines for commercial
use of small UAVs stating they must weigh less than 55 lb (25 kg), fly up to a maximum
of 400 feet (120 m), at a speed of no greater than 100 miles per hour (160 km/h), could
only be operated during daytime, and that drone operators must also qualify for flying
certificates and be at least 16-years old. In June 2017, the United States Senate proposed
legislation to allow package deliveries by drones. In October 2017, a Presidential directive
was issued that called on the FAA and Transportation Department to work with local officials to
create initiatives that would enable American companies to eventually use drones for delivery
purposes.==In healthcare==UAVs can transport medicines and vaccines,
and retrieve medical samples, into and out of remote or otherwise inaccessible regions. 2014, a Dutch student created a prototype
‘Ambulance drone’ which would be capable of rapidly delivering defibrillators and include
live stream communication capability allowing paramedics to remotely observe and instruct
on-scene individuals in how to use the defibrillators.July 2015, the FAA granted NASA, the drone delivery
company Flirtey and Virginia Tech approval to deliver medicine to a rural Virginia medical
clinic. Flirtey also made the first fully autonomous
FAA-approved urban delivery in March 2016, when it delivered bottled water, emergency
food, and a first aid kit to an uninhabited residential area in Hawthorne, Nevada.2016,
the Rwandan government partnered with the company Zipline International Inc. to build
a distribution center near the town of Muhanga, from which the company’s drones are used to
deliver blood and pharmaceutical products to 21 facilities.March 2017, the company Matternet
partnered with the Swiss Post to launch the first medical drone delivery network in Switzerland. October 2017, REMSA Health, an ambulance and
emergency service provider, partnered with Flirtey, to dispatch portable defibrillators
when 911 callers report cardiac arrest symptoms in Northern Nevada.April 19, 2019, a kidney
was delivered to the University of Maryland Medical Center for transplant to a human recipient,
marking the first time a human organ was delivered by drone.==Food delivery==Early prototypes of food delivery drones include
the Tacocopter demonstration by Star Simpson, which was a taco delivery concept utilizing
a smartphone app to order drone-delivered tacos in San Francisco area. The revelation that it didn’t exist as a delivery
system or app led to it being labelled a hoax. A similar concept named the “burrito bomber”
was tested in 2012. That same year, a Free University of Berlin
student project examined the use of drones for pizza delivery. In 2013, as part of an advertising campaign,
an independent Domino’s UK franchise tested the Domicopter. Similar flights were conducted in India and
Russia, but lacked regulatory approval.A partnership between 7-Eleven and Flirtey resulted in the
first FAA-approved delivery to a residence in the United States in July 2016. The following month, the company partnered
with Domino’s in New Zealand to launch the first commercial drone delivery service.In
September 2016, Chipotle Mexican Grill partnered with Alphabet X and announced it planned to
test drone deliveries at the Virginia Tech campus. The deliveries were scheduled to be delivered
in a contained area with the food to be delivered being made on site.Connect Robotics, in a
pilot project with Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Penela and Penela Town Hall, made a first
meal delivery per drone in December 2016. The project intends to be an alternative to
the transport done with the mini-van. The first beneficiary to take advantage of
this delivery service was Joaquim dos Reis, a septuagenarian living in Podentinhos, who,
in addition to meals delivered by the drone, continue to receive the home assistance provided
by Santa Casa.Marriott International used drones to deliver cocktails and drinks to
the tables of guests at multiple properties in 2017 including the Marriott Marquis Hotel
in Chicago, IL. The hotel chain formed a partnership with
DJI in 2016, and used the company’s drones for its indoor drink delivery.==Postal deliveries==
With the rapid demise of snail mail and the explosive double digit growth of e-commerce,
postal companies have been forced to seek new ways to yond their traditional letter
delivery business models. Different postal companies from Australia,
Switzerland, Germany, Singapore and Ukraine have undertaken various drone trials as they
test the feasibility and profitability of unmanned delivery drone services. The USPS has been testing delivery systems
with HorseFly Drones.==Experiments=====2013===
Amazon Prime Air – Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos’ December 2013 announcement that Amazon
was planning rapid delivery of lightweight commercial products using UAVs was met with
skepticism, with perceived obstacles including federal and state regulatory approval, public
safety, reliability, individual privacy, operator training and certification, security (hacking),
payload thievery, and logistical challenges.In December 2013, in a research project of Deutsche
Post AG subsidiary DHL, a sub-kilogram quantity of medicine was delivered via a prototype
Microdrones “Parcelcopter”, raising speculation that disaster relief may be the first place
the company will use the technology. DHL Parcelcopter is currently in trials in
Germany.===2014===
In July 2014 it was revealed Amazon was working on its 8th and 9th drone prototypes, some
that could fly 50 miles per hour and carry 5-pound packages, and had applied to the FAA
to test them.In August 2014, Google revealed it had been testing UAVs in Australia for
two years. The Google X program known as “Project Wing”
aims to produce drones that can deliver not only products sold via e-commerce, but larger
delivery items.In September 2014, FedEx was reportedly testing integration of drone delivery
with their existing logistics model. In December 2014, French mail services company
La Poste unveiled an experimental delivery drone project.===2015===
In February 2015, Hangzhou based e-commerce provider Ali Baba started delivery drone service
in a partnership with Shanghai YTO Express in which it delivered tea to 450 customers
around select cities in China. In March 2015, Shenzhen-based SF Express started
providing delivery services with Xaircraft drones in China. On the 13th March 2015, in Sheffield, UK-based
FPS Distribution completed the first commercial delivery in the United Kingdom using a UAV.In
May 2015, CJ Express announced a partnership with the Ministry of Public Safety and Security
for disaster relief, becoming the first private company in South Korea to operate delivery
drones.===2016===
In March 2016, Flirtey conducted the first fully autonomous FAA approved drone delivery
in an urban setting in the U.S.In April 2016, a joint project in Japan involving the central
government, Chiba City, research institutions and companies including Rakuten was launched
to trial home drone deliveries in an urban area. A similar test project was carried out in
Naka, Tokushima in February 2016 as a way to facilitate shopping for people who live
in a depopulated area.In Japan both the e-commerce behemoth Rakuten and retail giant AEON have
undertaken package delivery tests. AEON conducted a drone delivery test which
involved delivering a bottle of wine, toward targeting actual drone home delivery services
for the year 2019 for Aeon Mall, the company’s online shopping site. Rakuten on the other hand, which in early
2016 delivered refreshments and golf balls within a golf course, expanded upon that test
service and in November 2016 performed a new test of package delivery service with upgraded
capability. Making improvements over the previous test,
Rakuten partnered with mobile phone company NTT DoCoMo to integrate the use of the cellular
LTE network for long distance delivery capability testing. And in addition to modifications to the product
ordering app and drone control dashboard, the new delivery drone included a number of
performance enhancements including water-resistance, long-distance flight with fully autonomous
control and was equipped with a parachute to slow the speed of the fall in an emergency,
offering a greater level of safety. The delivery of cargo using the drone was
carried out at the Inage Seaside Park in Chiba City, Japan and adjacent sea area.In December
2016, Amazon made its first drone delivery using a drone in the United Kingdom.===2017===
In China, JD.com has been aggressively developing its drone capabilities. As of June 2017, JD.com had seven different
types of delivery drones in testing or operation across four provinces in China (Beijing, Sichuan,
Shaanxi and Jiangsu). The drones are capable of delivering packages
weighing between 5 and 30 kg (11 to 66 lbs) while flying up to 100 km/hr (62 mph). The drones do not deliver goods directly to
people’s homes. Rather, they automatically fly along fixed
routes from warehouses to special landing pads where one of JD.com’s 300,000 local
contractors then delivers the packages to the customers’ doorsteps in the rural villages. The e-commerce giant is now working on a 1
metric ton (1,000 kg) delivery drone which will be tested in Shaanxi.Flytrex, an Israeli
startup which specializes in developing drone delivery solutions, partnered with AHA in
2015, Iceland’s largest eCommerce website, and together they initiated a drone delivery
route which would shorten AHA’s delivery times from 30 minutes, to less than 5. The system was deployed On 25 August 2017
and is now delivering food and small electronics via drones.===2018===
In January 2018, Boeing unveiled a prototype of a cargo drone for up to 500 lb (227 kg)
payloads, an electric flying testbed that completed flight tests at the Boeing Research
& Technology research center in Missouri.===2019===
UPS in association with Matternet started a three year medical delivery trial in Raleigh==
Commercial systems=====2016===
Zipline International Inc. signed a deal with the Rwandan government, allowing the construction
of a medical distribution center near Muhanga. Rwanda has a mountainous geography and poor
road conditions making an aerial delivery system more efficient as of May 2018 they
have delivered over 7000 units of blood this wayThe design of the electric aircraft, called
Zips look like small propeller airplanes, enabling them to fly fast and over a long
distance (typically 150 km on a single charge), in any weather short of a hurricane, they
cannot independently takeoff or land instead using an Assisted take-off and for landing
they use Arresting gear. During the delivery the plane does not land,
instead it drops to a low height and the package drops to the ground slowed by a parachute-like
air brake.===2018===
In October 2018, Vanuatu (a nation made of several islands) awarded contracts to two
companies Swoop Aero Pty Ltd of Melbourne, Australia, to cover health facilities on the
Epi and the Shepherd Islands (as well as Erromango Island with vaccine delivery) and Wingcopter
Holding GmbH & Co. KG of Darmstadt, Germany, to deliver vaccines to facilities on Pentecost
Island. Both companies use VTOL type aeroplanes that
can take off and land without specialist equipment or runways.In December 2018, Kroger began
delivering groceries to customers in the Scottsdale, Arizona, area using unmanned vehicles designed
by Nuro.===2019===
In January 2019, Amazon announced its new delivery system, the Amazon Scout. Postmates began delivering food in Los Angeles
in 2019 with a delivery robot named Serve.Amazon decided to use drones to speed up the shipping
service so that it can save time. The goal for Amazon is to deliver packages
to customers within 30 minutes. The Amazon drones are fully controlled by
computers and they access GPS to deliver objects. Amazon started discussing this topic in 2013
and they have been testing it, but they are still working on to demonstrate a safe operation.By
February 2019, Zipline International has delivered over 10,000 packages in Rwanda. The company is now running two distribution
centers (one in Muhanga and another in Kayonza, Eastern of Rwanda), where they plan to scale
up to essential emergency medicines all over the country.==Illegal deliveries==
Drug cartels have used UAVs to transport contraband, sometimes using GPS-guided UAVs.From 2013
and 2015, UAVs were observed delivering items into prisons on at least four occasions in
the United States while four separate but similar incidents occurred in Ireland, Britain,
Australia and Canada as well. Though not a popular way of smuggling items
into prisons, corrections officials state that some individuals are beginning to experiment
with UAVs.In November 2013, four people in Morgan, Georgia, were arrested for allegedly
attempting to smuggle contraband into Calhoun State Prison with a hexacopter.In 2014 a quadcopter
crashed into an exercise yard of Wheatfield Prison, Dublin. The quadcopter collided with wires designed
to prevent helicopters landing to aid escapes, causing it to crash. A package containing drugs hung from the quadcopter
and was seized by prisoners before prison staff could get to it.Between 2014 and 2015,
at two prisons in South Carolina, items such as drugs and cell phones were flown into the
area by UAVs with authorities and one prison not knowing how many deliveries were successful
before gaining the attention of authorities.==See also==
Automated storage and retrieval system

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