Doktor nauk | Wikipedia audio article


Doktor nauk (Russian: доктор наук,
IPA: [ˈdoktər nɐˈuk], abbreviated д-р наук or д. н.; Ukrainian: доктор
наук; Bulgarian: доктор на науките; Belarusian: доктар навук; lit. “Doctor of Sciences”) is a higher doctoral
degree which may be earned after the Candidate of Sciences (the latter is informally regarded
in Russia and many other post-Soviet states as equivalent to the PhD obtained in countries
in which the PhD is not the highest academic degree).==History==
The “Doktor Nauk” degree was introduced in Russia in 1819 and abolished in 1917. Later it was revived in the USSR on January
13, 1934, by a decision of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR. By the same decision, a lower degree, “Candidate
of Sciences” (Kandidat Nauk), roughly the Russian equivalent to the research doctorate
in other countries, was first introduced. This system was generally adopted by the USSR/Russia
and many post-Soviet/Eastern block states, including Bulgaria, Belarus, former Czechoslovakia,
Poland, and Ukraine. But note that the former Yugoslav degree “Doktor
nauka” / “Доктор наука” / “Doktor znanosti”, still awarded by Bosnia Herzegovina,
Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia follows the Bologna Process and is
therefore equivalent to either a PhD, or to a Higher Doctorate, depending on the institution
awarding the degree.==Admission==
Doktor nauk degrees are conferred by a national government agency called the Higher Attestation
Commission (Vysshaya Attestatsionnaya Komissiya, VAK) on the solicitation by the specialized
dissertation committee before which the candidate has defended her or his dissertation. Such committees are created in academic institutions
with established research record and are accredited by VAK. The total number of committee members is typically
about 20, all holding the Doktor Nauk degree. The area of research specialization of at
least five committee members must match the profile of the materials submitted by the
doctoral candidate for the consideration. The candidate must conduct independent research. Therefore, no academic supervisor is required;
moreover, typically the candidate is an established scholar him/herself, supervising a few Ph.D.
students while working towards his or her Doktor Nauk dissertation. However, it is normal practice when an experienced
consultant is appointed to help the scholar with identifying the research problem and
finding the approach to solving it; yet this is not technically regarded a supervision. The procedures of conferring of both Kandidat
and Doktor academic degrees are more formal and different from conferring a Ph.D. degree
in Western universities. In particular, for the Doktor, the academic
institution, where the scholar is affiliated as a doctoral candidate, must conduct a preliminary
review of the research results and personal contribution made by the candidate and, depending
on findings, elect whether to render formal support or not. By definition, this highly prestigious degree
can be conferred only for a significant contribution to science and/or technology based on a public
defense of a thesis, monograph, or (in rare cases) of a set of outstanding publications
in peer-reviewed journals. The defense must be held at the session of
a Specialized Dissertation Committee accredited by VAK. Prior to the defense, three referees holding
Doktor Nauk degrees themselves (the so-called “official opponents”) must submit their written
motivated assessments of the thesis. One more similar assessment is to be provided
by some university or academic institution, working in the same field of science or technology,
and in addition several other reviewers must mail their conclusions made based on a thesis
summary (usually a 32-page brochure in natural sciences and 48 pages in social sciences). In the former USSR, this degree is considered
a sufficient credential for tenured full professorship at any institution of higher education. Unless an academic holds a Doktor Nauk, she
or he can make it to a full professor only through 15 years or more of outstanding teaching
service on the university level. At least one published and widely accepted
textbook and the degree of Kandidat Nauk are required in the latter case, anyway. A Doktor Nauk degree holder can become a tenured
full professor after just one year of teaching experience in a non-tenured faculty position. A degree of Doktor Nauk also enables its holders
to claim an academic rank of a professor awarded by VAK or a new rank of a “Professor of the
Russian Academy of Sciences” established in 2015. The Doktor Nauk thus has no academic equivalent
in North America, as it is a post-doctoral degree. The German Habilitation and, to some extent,
the French habilitation à diriger des recherches (HDR) are comparable to it, as are the British
higher doctorates (e.g. Doctor of Science), although the last-mentioned are not required
for career advancement. On the average, only 10 per cent of Kandidats
eventually earn a Doktor degree. Although some exceptionally talented researchers
in mathematics do earn Doktor Nauk in their late 20s, the average age of the scholars
reaching Doktor in most disciplines is about 50; this implicitly indicates the amount of
contribution that must be made. According to the Ministry of Education and
Science of the Russian Federation, “In countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees,
the degree of Doctor Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of the second
doctoral degree. In countries with only one doctoral degree,
the degree of Doctor Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this degree.”According
to guidelines published by the Russian Academy of Sciences:
д. г. н. (Russian: доктор географических
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Geographical Sciences
д. г.-м. н. (Russian: доктор геолого-минералогических
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Geological and Mineralogical Sciences
д. и. н. (Russian: доктор исторических
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Historical Sciences д. иск. (Russian: доктор искусствоведения)
– Doktor Nauk in Study of Art д. м. н. (Russian: доктор медицинских
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Medical Sciences д. п. н. (Russian: доктор психологических
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Psychological Sciences
д. пед. н. (Russian: доктор педагогических
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Pedagogical Sciences д. полит. н. (Russian: доктор политических
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Political Sciences д. с.-х. н. (Russian: доктор сельскохозяйственных
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Agricultural Sciences
д. социол. н. (Russian: доктор социологических
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Sociological Sciences
д. т. н. (Russian: доктор технических
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Technical Sciences д. ф. н. (Russian: доктор филологических
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Philological Sciences
д. ф.-м. н. (Russian: доктор физико-математических
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Physical and Mathematical Sciences
д. филос. н. (Russian: доктор философских
наук) – Doktor Nauk in Philosophical SciencesAccording to the International Standard
Classification of Education, for purposes of international educational statistics:
D.Sc.; D.Phil. to Doktor Nauk in Philosophy,
D.Lit.; Dr.Litt. to Doktor Nauk in Literature, D.Sc.; Dr.Nat.Sci. to Doktor Nauk of Natural
Science, LL.D.; D.Sci.Jus. to Doktor Nauk of Legal
Science.==See also==
Academic degree Doctor of Medicine
Education in Russia Habilitation

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