Edward Schillebeeckx | Wikipedia audio article


Edward Cornelis Florentius Alfonsus Schillebeeckx
(English: SKIL-ə-bayks, Dutch: [ˈsxɪləbeːks]; 12 November 1914 – 23 December 2009) was
a Belgian Roman Catholic theologian born in Antwerp. He taught at the Catholic University in Nijmegen.He
was a member of the Dominican Order. His books on theology have been translated
into many languages, and his contributions to the Second Vatican Council made him known
throughout the world.==Early life and ordination==
He was born in Antwerp, the sixth of 14 children in a middle-class family. After being educated by the Jesuits at Turnhout,
Schillebeeckx entered the Dominican Order in 1934. He studied theology and philosophy at the
Catholic University of Leuven. In 1941 he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1943 he finalized his studies in Turnhout
and moved to Ghent, where he studied at the Dominican house; he was strongly influenced
by Dominicus De Petter’s courses in phenomenology. After three years of studying philosophy at
Ghent, Schillebeeckx heeded the call up of the Belgian Armed Forces in 1938, leaving
the army again in August 1939. But one and a half months after that he was
summoned to return, due to the start of World War II and he left the Army only after the
defeat of the Belgian Armed Forces by the German occupiers. Schillebeeckx then entered the Dominican study
house at Leuven, where he stayed until 1945. From that year to July 1946, he studied at
the Dominican study centre Le Saulchoir at Étiolles, near Paris, where representatives
of the Nouvelle théologie-movement such as Marie-Dominique Chenu and Yves Congar introduced
him to modern Catholic theology as well as to the thought of Calvinist theologians like
Karl Barth.==Doctoral thesis==
During these years he also studied at the Sorbonne, and in July 1946 he did his doctoral
exam at the École des hautes études of the Sorbonne. In 1952 he defended and published his doctoral
thesis at the Dominican school of theology Le Saulchoir: De sacramentele heilseconomie
(The redeeming economy of the sacraments). After that, Schillebeeckx became master of
the Philosophy Study House of his order in Leuven, and in 1957 he spent one year teaching
Dogmatics at the Faculty of Theology, Catholic University of Leuven. In 1958 the Catholic University of Nijmegen
(now called Radboud University) in the Netherlands made him a professor of dogmatic theology
and history of theology. His inaugural lecture Op zoek naar de levende
God (In Search of the Living God) introduced Dutch theologians to the Nouvelle Théologie
founded by Chenu, Congar, Hans Urs von Balthasar, and others.==Second Vatican Council==
During the Second Vatican Council, Schillebeeckx was one of the most active theologians. He drafted various council interventions for
Dutch bishops such as Cardinal Bernard Jan Alfrink, and gave conferences on theological
ressourcement for many episcopal conferences present in Rome. Due to his having been the “ghost writer”
of the Dutch bishops’ Pastoral Letter on the upcoming Council in 1961, he was rendered
suspect with the Congregation of the Holy Office, led by Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani
(President) and the Dutchman Sebastiaan Tromp (Secretary). This was the first of three instances in which
Schillebeeckx had to defend his theological positions against accusations from the Roman
authorities. As a result, Schillebeeckx drafted his mostly
negative comments on the schemata prepared by the Preparatory Theological Commission
(headed by Ottaviani) anonymously. These anonymous comments on the theological
schemata debated at Vatican II, and the articles he published, also influenced the development
of several conciliar constitutions such as Dei verbum and Lumen gentium. Concerning the latter document, the Dogmatic
Constitution on the Church, Schillebeeckx was mainly involved in the debate on episcopal
collegiality, attempting to move Catholic ecclesiology away from a purely hierarchical,
structured vision of the church, focusing too heavily on Papal authority (as a result
of the declaration of Papal infallibility in Vatican I’s constitution Pastor aeternus). This, according to Schillebeeckx and many
others at Vatican II, was to be balanced by a renewed stress on the role of the episcopal
college. In this way his influence was far greater
than that of a formal peritus, a status the Dutch bishops had not granted to him. Not being a peritus also allowed him more
time to give talks to the Bishops attending the council, and to explain to them the “new
theology” or understanding arising with the Council. Already in 1963, together with Chenu, Congar,
Karl Rahner, and Hans Küng, he was involved in preparing the rise of the new theological
journal Concilium, which was officially founded in 1965 with the support of Paul Brand and
Antoine Van den Boogaard, and which promoted “reformist” thought.==Exegesis==
In the post-conciliar period Schillebeeckx’ attention shifted somewhat from Thomism to
biblical exegesis. On the basis of his study of the earliest
Christian sources – often drawing upon the exegetical insight of his Nijmegen colleague
Bas van Iersel – Schillebeeckx confronted such debated questions as the position of
priests, e.g., by supporting a proposal to disconnect sacramental priesthood and the
obligation to celibacy. Precisely on this matter, Schillebeeckx played
an influential role during the National Pastoral Council (Landelijk Pastoraal Concilie) held
at Noordwijkerhout from 1968 to 1970. At the sessions of this synod, the Dutch bishops,
intellectuals, and representatives from many Catholic organisations tried to implement
what they perceived as the major progressive objectives of the Second Vatican Council. Schillebeeckx, well known in the Netherlands
and Belgium through his many interventions in the media, was by then known as the leading
Dutch-speaking contemporary theologian. He was also widely known through the English
translation in 1963 of his book Christ the Sacrament of the Encounter with God.==Controversies with the CDF==
In Jesus: An experiment in Christology (Dutch ed. 1974), Schillebeeckx argued that we should
not imagine that the belief of the disciples that Jesus had risen was caused by the empty
tomb and the resurrection appearances. It was quite the opposite: A belief in the
resurrection, “that the new orientation of living which this Jesus has brought about
in their lives has not been rendered meaningless by his death – quite the opposite,” gave
rise to these traditions. The empty tomb was, in his opinion, an unnecessary
hypothesis, since “an eschatological, bodily resurrection, theologically speaking, has
nothing to do, however, with a corpse.” That was merely a “crude and naive realism
of what ‘appearances of Jesus'” meant.Although the books were followed by a couple of articles
where Schillebeeckx defends himself against criticism and tones down his radicalism, on
20 October 1976 the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith wrote to him with various objections. As a result of the ensuing correspondence,
he was asked to come to Rome to explain his position. In December 1979, he met with representatives
of the Congregation. Due to international pressure, the drive for
a trial was ended. The conclusions of the Congregation, however,
left the impression that a genuine accord had not been reached, and he continued to
receive notifications from Church authorities for his repeated writings. His christology was criticized by Cardinal
Franjo Šeper and then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, whom Schillebeeckx already knew at Vatican
II and who was later elected Pope Benedict XVI. In 1984 his orthodoxy was again called into
question by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith: he was summoned to Rome to explain
his views expressed in The Ministry in the Church, which were regarded as Protestant. And in 1986 for a third time Schillebeeckx’
theological views were put into question, again regarding the sacramental nature of
office in the Roman Catholic Church. More precisely, in The Church with a Human
Face Schillebeeckx argued, on biblical-historical grounds, that the consecration to Catholic
priesthood does not necessarily gain its validity from, and can therefore be detached from,
apostolic succession; rather, the choice of priests (and as a consequence the celebration
of the Eucharist) is dependent on the local church community. Despite three investigations with the Congregation
for the Doctrine of the Faith, the writings of Schillebeeckx were never condemned. Some of his doctrines, however, have been
implicitly or even explicitly rejected by the Magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church;
most notably his theory of transignification, designed to supplant the Catholic doctrine
of transsubstantiation (in Pope Paul VI’s 1965 encyclical Mysterium fidei.Schillebeeckx
continued to publish after his retirement. His oeuvre, surveyed in several bibliographies,
has been the subject of many studies and controversies.==Later life==Until his death he lived in Nijmegen, in the
Netherlands, where he taught at the Catholic University of Nijmegen until his retirement. He was awarded the Erasmus Prize in 1982,
and (as the only theologian) the Gouden Ganzenveer in 1989.==Resources=====Selective bibliography===
De sacramentele heilseconomie (Antwerp 1952) Christus, sacrament van de Godsontmoeting
(Bilthoven 1959) – tr. Christ the sacrament of the encounter with
God (New York 1963) Op zoek naar de levende God (Nimwegen 1959)
Openbaring en theologie (Bilthoven 1964) (Theologische Peilingen, 1) – tr. Revelation and theology (London 1979)
God en mens (Bilthoven 1965) (Theologische Peilingen, 2)
Wereld en kerk (Bilthoven 1966) (Theologische Peilingen, 3)
De zending van de kerk (Bilthoven 1968) (Theologische Peilingen, 4)
Jezus, het verhaal van een levende (Bloemendaal 1974) – tr. Jesus: an experiment in Christology (London
1979; New York 1981) Gerechtigheid en liefde, genade en bevrijding
(Bloemendaal 1977) – tr. Christ: the Christian experience in the modern
world (London 1980) Tussentijds verhaal over twee Jezusboeken
(Baarn 1978) Evangelie verhalen (Baarn 1982) – tr. God among us : the Gospel proclaimed (London
1983) Pleidooi voor mensen in de kerk. Christelijke identiteit en ambten in de kerk
(Baarn 1985) – tr. The Church with a human face: a new and expanded
theology of ministry (New York 1985) Als politiek niet alles is… Jezus in de westerse cultuur (Baarn 1986)
– tr. On Christian faith: the spiritual, ethical
and political dimensions (New York 1984) Mensen als verhaal van God (Baarn 1989) – tr. Church. The human story of God (New York 1990)
I Am a Happy Theologian (London 1994) The Eucharist (2005/1948)===Bio-bibliographical literature===
Erik Borgman, Edward Schillebeeckx. A Theologian in His History. Vol. 1: A Catholic Theology of Culture (London,
New York NY, 2003). Bibliography of Edward Schillebeeckx 1936-1996. Compiled by Ted Schoof and Jan Van de Westelaken
(Baarn, 1997). The Schillebeeckx Case. Official Exchange of Letters and Documents
in the Investigation of Fr. Edward Schillebeeckx by the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine
of the Faith, 1976-1980. Edited with introduction and notes by Ted
Schoof (New York NY, 1980). Jennifer Cooper, Humanity in the Mystery of
God: the theological anthropology of Edward Schillebeeckx. (London, T&T Clark, 2011).===Edward Schillebeeckx Foundation===
The Edward Schillebeeckx Foundation, led by Nico Schreurs, was founded at Nijmegen in
1989. As indicated on its website, the foundation
sets itself the goal of collecting, organising, preserving, and rendering accessible the entire
output of, and material about, Edward Schillebeeckx. The Foundation seeks to safeguard for the
future the spiritual, scientific, and social values contained in Schillebeeckx’ work.===Archives===
The personal papers of Edward Schillebeeckx are being conserved in two archive centers. The largest part of the collection of Schillebeeckx’
writings are kept at the Katholiek Documentatie Centrum (KDC) of the Radboud University at
Nijmegen (not consultable). As regards the council papers of Edward Schillebeeckx,
these are held at the Centre for the Study of the Second Vatican Council, at the Faculty
of Theology, Catholic University of Leuven.===References=====External links==
Works by or about Edward Schillebeeckx in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
Edward Schillebeeckx Foundation Biography (nl)
Video (ger) Father Edward Schillebeeckx – Daily Telegraph
obituary Schillebeeckx: No salvation outside the world
by Richard P. McBrien, Feb. 01, 2010 – National Catholic Reporter

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