Feodosia | Wikipedia audio article

Feodosia (Russian: Феодосия, Feodosiya;
Ukrainian: Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called
Theodosia (from Greek: Θεοδοσία), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance
in Crimea on the Black Sea coast. Feodosia serves as the administrative center of Feodosia
Municipality, one of the regions into which Crimea is divided. During much of its history
the city was known as Caffa (Ligurian: Cafà) or Kaffa. According to the most recent census,
its population is 69,145 (2014 Census).==History=====
Theodosia===The city was founded as Theodosia (Θεοδοσία)
by Greek colonists from Miletos in the 6th century BC. Noted for its rich agricultural
lands, on which its trade depended, it was destroyed by the Huns in the 4th century AD.
Theodosia remained a minor village for much of the next nine hundred years. It was at
times part of the sphere of influence of the Khazars (excavations have revealed Khazar
artifacts dating back to the 9th century) and of the Byzantine Empire.
Like the rest of Crimea, this place (village) fell under the domination of the Kipchaks
and was conquered by the Mongols in the 1230s.===Kaffa===In the late 13th century, traders from the
Republic of Genoa arrived and purchased the city from the ruling Golden Horde. They established
a flourishing trading settlement called Kaffa, which virtually monopolized trade in the Black
Sea region and served as a major port and administrative center for the Genoese settlements
around the Sea. It came to house one of Europe’s biggest slave markets. From 1266 and on, Kaffa
was governed by a Genoese consul, who since 1316 was in charge of all Genoese Black Sea
colonies. Between 1204–1261 and again in 1296–1307, the city of Kaffa was ruled by
Republic of Genoa’s chief rival, the Republic of Venice.Ibn Battuta visited the city, noting
it was a “great city along the sea coast inhabited by Christians, most of them Genoese.” He further
stated, “We went down to its port, where we saw a wonderful harbor with about two hundred
vessels in it, both ships of war and trading vessels, small and large, for it is one of
the world’s celebrated ports.”In early 1318 Pope John XXII established a Latin Church
diocese of Kaffa, as a suffragan of Genoa. The papal bull of appointment of the first
bishop attributed to him a vast territory: “a villa de Varna in Bulgaria usque Sarey
inclusive in longitudinem et a mari Pontico usque ad terram Ruthenorum in latitudinem”
(“from the city of Varna in Bulgaria to Sarey inclusive in longitude, and from the Black
Sea to the land of the Ruthenians in latitude”). The first bishop was Fra’ Gerolamo, who had
already been consecrated seven years before as a missionary bishop ad partes Tartarorum.
The diocese ended as a residential bishopric with the capture of the city by the Ottomans
in 1475. Accordingly, Kaffa is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.It
is believed that the devastating pandemic the Black Death entered Europe for the first
time via Kaffa in 1347, through the movements of the Golden Horde. After a protracted siege
during which the Mongol army under Janibeg was reportedly withering from the disease,
they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants,
in one of the first cases of biological warfare. Fleeing inhabitants may have carried the disease
back to Italy, causing its spread across Europe. However, the plague appears to have spread
in a stepwise fashion, taking over a year to reach Europe from Crimea. Also, there were
a number of Crimean ports under Mongol control, so it is unlikely that Kaffa was the only
source of plague-infested ships heading to Europe. Additionally, there were overland
caravan routes from the East that would have been carrying the disease into Europe as well.Kaffa
eventually recovered. The thriving, culturally diverse city and its thronged slave market
have been described by the Spanish traveler Pedro Tafur, who was there in the 1430s. In
1462 Caffa placed itself under the protection of King Casimir IV of Poland. However, Poland
did not offer significant help due to reinforcements sent being massacred in Bar fortress (modern
day Ukraine) by Duke Czartoryski after quarrel with locals.===Kefe===Following the fall of Constantinople, Amasra,
and lastly Trebizond, the position of Caffa had become untenable and attracted the attention
of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. He was at no loss for a pretext to extinguish this last
Genoese colony on the Black sea. In 1473, the tudun (or governor) of the Crimean Khanate
died and a fight developed over the appointment of his successor. The Genoese involved themselves
in the dispute, and the Tatar notables who favored the losing candidate finally asked
Mehmed to settle the dispute. Mehmed dispatched a fleet under the Ottoman commander Gedik
Ahmet Pasha, which left Constantinople 19 May 1475. It anchored before the walls of
the city on 1 June, started the bombardment the next day, and on 6 June the inhabitants
capitulated. Over the next few days the Ottomans proceeded to extract the wealth of the inhabitants,
and abduct 1,500 youths for service in the Sultan’s palace. On 8 July the final blow
was struck when all inhabitants of Latin origin were ordered to relocate to Istanbul, where
they founded a quarter (Kefeli Mahalle) which was named after the town they had been forced
to leave. Renamed Kefe, Caffa became one of the most important Turkish ports on the Black
Sea. In 1615 Zaporozhian Cossacks under the leadership
of Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny destroyed the Turkish fleet and captured Caffa. Having
conquered the city, the cossacks released the men, women and children who were slaves.===Feodosia again===
Ottoman control ceased when the expanding Russian Empire took over Crimea between 1774
and 1783. It was renamed Feodosiya (Ѳеодосія, reformed spelling: Феодосия), after
the traditional Russian reading of the ancient Greek name. In 1900 Zibold constructed the
first air well (dew condenser) on mount Tepe-Oba near Feodosiya. The city was occupied by the forces of Nazi
Germany during World War II, sustaining significant damage in the process. The Jewish population
numbering 3,248 before the German occupation was murdered by SD-Einsatzgruppe D between
November 16 and December 15, 1941. A witness interviewed by Yahad-In Unum described how
the Jews were rounded-up in the city: “Posters announced that the Jews had to go to jail
with food reserves for three days because they will be taken to Israel.” A monument
commemorating the Holocaust victims is situated at the crossroads of Kerchensky and Symferopolsky
highways. On Passover eve, April 7, 2012, unknown persons desecrated, for the sixth
time, the monument, allegedly as an anti-Semitic act. All native Tatar inhabitants were arrested
by Russian forces as, according to Stalin, several thousand Tartars had fought side-by-side
with the Nazis against Soviet forces and had participated in the Jewish genocide. No reliable
source or proof exists of Stalin’s allegations. Following Stalin orders, all Tartars were
sent to Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and other Central Asian republics of the USSR.==Geography=====
Climate===The climate is warm and dry and could be described
as humid subtropical, but not as Mediterranean, because there is no apparent drying trend
in the summer.==Modern Feodosiya==Modern Feodosiya is a resort city with a population
of about 69,000 people. It has beaches, mineral springs, and mud baths, sanatoria, and rest
homes. Apart from tourism, its economy rests on agriculture and fisheries. Local industries
include fishing, brewing and canning. As with much of the Crimea, most of its population
is ethnically Russian; the Ukrainian language is infrequently used. In June 2006, Feodosiya
made the news with the 2006 anti-NATO port riot.
While most beaches in Crimea are made of pebbles, there is a unique Golden Beach (Zolotoy Plyazh)
made of small seashells in the Feodosiya area. The Golden Beach stretches for 15 km.
The city is sparsely populated during the winter months. Most cafes and restaurants
are closed. Business and tourism increase in mid-June and peak during July and August.
Like in the other resort towns in Crimea, the tourists come mostly from the C.I.S. countries
of the former Soviet Union. Feodosiya was the city where the seascape painter Ivan Aivazovsky
lived and worked all his life, and where general Pyotr Kotlyarevsky and the writer Alexander
Grin spent their declining years. Popular tourist locations include the Aivazovsky National
Art Gallery and the Genoese fortress.===2014 Russian annexation===Crimea was annexed by Russia in early 2014
and the peninsula, formerly Ukrainian territory since 1991, is now administered as two Russian
federal subjects: the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. The international
community has overwhelmingly condemned the military takeover. Five United Nations General
Assembly Resolutions ([1][2][3][4][5]) confirmed the status of Crimea as part of the territory
of Ukraine, condemned the occupation of Crimea by the Russian Federation and stated that
the Russian annexation of Crimea would not be recognized. The United Nations also called
upon all states, international organizations and specialized agencies not to recognize
any alteration of the status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol
and to refrain from any action or dealing that might be interpreted as recognizing any
such altered status.==Economy and industry==
More PO (Primorsk) Sudokompozit – ship design R&D naval hardwareKasatka
TsNII Gp NPO Uran (Gagra Pitsunda) – ship design R&D naval hardwareGidropribor FeOMMZ,
torpedo manufacturing and ship yard (Ordzhonikidze)NPO Uran TsNII Gp “Kasatka” (Lab N°5 NII400)
torpedoes (Gagra Pitsunda)Russia Black Sea Fleet Navy Ship repair Yards
FOMZ Opto Mechanical Plant FKOZ Feodosia Economic Industrial Zone FPZ (west)
Feodosia FMZ Engineering/Machine-building Plant
Feodosia FPZ (Priborostroeni Priladobudivni) Instrument-making Plant==Twin towns—sister cities==
Armavir, Armenia Azov, Russia
Kronstadt, Russia Stavropol, Russia
Kołobrzeg, Poland and others==People from Feodosiya==
Ivan Aivazovsky, Armenian painter Roman Kapitonenko, Ukrainian boxer
Andrzej Liczik, Ukrainian-Polish boxer==
In popular culture==The late-medieval city of Caffa is the locale
in a section of the novel Caprice and Rondo by Dorothy Dunnett.
An early 14th-century bishop of Caffa appears in Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose,
making several sharp replies in a long, tempestuous debate within a group of monks and clerics;
he is portrayed as aggressive and somewhat narrow-minded.==
See also==List of traditional Greek place names==Notes====Further reading==
Annette M. B. Meakin (1906). “Theodosia”. Russia, Travels and Studies. London: Hurst
and Blackett. OCLC 3664651. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Theodosia” . Encyclopædia
Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Гавриленко О. А., Сівальньов О. М., Цибулькін В. В. Генуезька
спадщина на теренах України; етнодержавознавчий вимір.
— Харків: Точка, 2017.— 260 с. — ISBN 978-617-669-209-6==External links==
WorldStatesmen- Ukraine Ancient Theodosia and its Coinage
Tourist Theodosius The murder of the Jews of Feodosia during
World War II, at Yad Vashem website.

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