John Dee (mathematician) | Wikipedia audio article


John Dee (13 July 1527 – 1608 or 1609) was
an Anglo-Welsh mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and occult philosopher, and an
advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. He spent much time on alchemy, divination, and Hermetic
philosophy. He also advocated turning England’s imperial expansion into a “British Empire”,
a term he is generally credited with coining.==Science and sorcery==
To 21st-century eyes, Dee’s activities straddle the worlds of magic and modern science, but
the distinction would have meant nothing to him. He was invited to lecture on Euclidean
geometry at the University of Paris while still in his early twenties. He was an ardent
promoter of mathematics, a respected astronomer and a leading expert in navigation, who trained
many who would conduct England’s voyages of discovery.
Meanwhile he immersed himself in sorcery, astrology and Hermetic philosophy. Much effort
in his last 30 years went into trying to commune with angels, so as to learn the universal
language of creation and achieve a pre-apocalyptic unity of mankind. A student of the Renaissance
Neo-Platonism of Marsilio Ficino, he drew no distinctions between his mathematical research
and his investigations of hermetic magic, angel summoning and divination: all his activities
were facets of the quest for a transcendent understanding of the divine forms underlying
the visible world, Dee’s “pure verities”. Dee amassed one of the biggest libraries in
England. His scholarly status also took him into Elizabethan politics as an adviser and
tutor to Elizabeth I and through relations with her ministers Francis Walsingham and
William Cecil. He tutored and had patronage relations with Sir Philip Sidney, his uncle
Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, Edward Dyer, and Sir Christopher Hatton.==Biography=====Early life===
Dee was born in Tower Ward, London, to Rowland Dee, of Welsh descent, and Johanna Wild. His
surname “Dee” derived from the Welsh du (black); his grandfather was Bedo Ddu of Nant-y-groes,
Pilleth, Radnorshire, and John retained his connection with the locality. His father Roland
was a mercer and gentleman courtier to Henry VIII. John Dee claimed to be a descendant
of Rhodri the Great, Prince of Wales and constructed a pedigree showing his descent from Rhodri.
Dee’s family arrived in London in the wake of Henry Tudor’s coronation as Henry VII.
Jane Dee was the daughter of William Wild.Dee attended the Chelmsford Chantry School (now
King Edward VI Grammar School) from 1535 to 1542. He entered St John’s College, Cambridge,
in November 1542, aged 15, graduating BA in 1545 or early 1546. His abilities recognised,
he became an original fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, on its founding by Henry VIII in
1546. At Trinity, the clever stage effects he produced for a production of Aristophanes’
Peace procured him the reputation of being a magician that clung to him through life.
In the late 1540s and early 1550s, he travelled in Europe, studying at Louvain (1548) and
Brussels and lecturing in Paris on Euclid. He studied with Gemma Frisius and became a
close friend of the cartographer Gerardus Mercator and cartographer Abraham Ortelius.
Dee also travelled extensively throughout Europe meeting and working with as well as
learning from other leading continental mathematicians such as Federico Commandino in Italy. He returned
to England with an important collection of mathematical and astronomical instruments.
In 1552, he met Gerolamo Cardano in London: during their acquaintance they investigated
a purported perpetual motion machine, as well as a gem supposed to have magical properties.Rector
at Upton-upon-Severn from 1553, Dee was offered a readership in mathematics at Oxford University
in 1554, which he declined, citing English universities’ emphasis on rhetoric and grammar
(which, together with logic, formed the academic trivium) over philosophy and science (the
more advanced quadrivium, composed of arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy), as offensive.
He was occupied with writing and perhaps hoped for a better position at court. In 1555, Dee
became a member of the Worshipful Company of Mercers, as his father had, through the
company’s system of patrimony.That same year, 1555, he was arrested and charged with “calculating”
for having cast horoscopes of Queen Mary and Princess Elizabeth; the charges were expanded
to treason against Mary. Dee appeared in the Star Chamber and exonerated himself, but was
turned over to the Catholic Bishop Bonner for religious examination. His strong and
lifelong penchant for secrecy perhaps worsening matters, this entire episode was only the
most dramatic in a series of attacks and slanders that would dog Dee throughout his life. Clearing
his name yet again, he soon became a close associate of Bonner.Dee presented Queen Mary
with a visionary plan for the preservation of old books, manuscripts and records and
the founding of a national library, in 1556, but his proposal was not taken up. Instead,
he expanded his personal library at his house in Mortlake, tirelessly acquiring books and
manuscripts in England and on the European Continent. Dee’s library, a centre of learning
outside the universities, became the greatest in England and attracted many scholars. When Elizabeth took the throne in 1558, Dee
became her trusted advisor on astrological and scientific matters, choosing Elizabeth’s
coronation date himself. From the 1550s through the 1570s, he served as an advisor to England’s
voyages of discovery, providing technical assistance in navigation and ideological backing
in the creation of a “British Empire”, a term that he was the first to use. Dee wrote a
letter to William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, in October 1574 seeking patronage. He claimed
to have occult knowledge of treasure in the Welsh Marches, and of valuable ancient manuscripts
kept at Wigmore Castle, knowing that the Lord Treasurer’s ancestors came from this area.
In 1577, Dee published General and Rare Memorials pertayning to the Perfect Arte of Navigation,
a work that set out his vision of a maritime empire and asserted English territorial claims
on the New World. Dee was acquainted with Humphrey Gilbert and was close to Sir Philip
Sidney and his circle.In 1564, Dee wrote the Hermetic work Monas Hieroglyphica (“The Hieroglyphic
Monad”), an exhaustive Cabalistic interpretation of a glyph of his own design, meant to express
the mystical unity of all creation. Having dedicated it to Maximilian II, Holy Roman
Emperor in an effort to gain patronage, Dee attempted to present it to him during the
time of his ascension to the throne of Hungary. This work was esteemed by many of Dee’s contemporaries,
but the work can not be interpreted today without the secret oral tradition from that
era.He published a “Mathematical Preface” to Henry Billingsley’s English translation
of Euclid’s Elements in 1570, arguing the central importance of mathematics and outlining
mathematics’ influence on the other arts and sciences. Intended for an audience outside
the universities, it proved to be Dee’s most widely influential and frequently reprinted
work.One of the important early products of the English School was the first English translation
of the Elements of Euclid. This translation was carried out by The Lord Mayor of London
Sir Henry Billingsley and not from a Latin translation but direct from the Greek. Published
in 1570 this mathematical milestone contained a preface as well as copious notes and supplementary
material from John Dee and this preface is considered to be one of Dee’s most important
mathematical works.===Later life===By the early 1580s, Dee was growing dissatisfied
with his progress in learning the secrets of nature as well as his failing influence
and recognition in court circles. Failure of his proposed calendar revision, imperial
recommendations and ambivalent results from exploration of North America had nearly brought
his hopes of political patronage to an end. As a result, he began a more energetic turn
towards the supernatural as a means to acquire knowledge. Specifically, he sought to contact
spirits through the use of a “scryer” or crystal-gazer, which would act as an intermediary between
Dee and the angels.Dee’s first attempts with several scryers were not satisfactory, but
in 1582 he met Edward Kelley (then going under the name of Edward Talbot to disguise his
conviction for “coining” or forgery), who impressed him greatly with his abilities.
Dee took Kelley into his service and began to devote all his energies to his supernatural
pursuits. These “spiritual conferences” or “actions” were conducted with an air of intense
Christian piety, always after periods of purification, prayer and fasting. Dee was convinced of the
benefits they could bring to mankind. (The character of Kelley is harder to assess: some
have concluded that he acted with complete cynicism, but delusion or self-deception are
not out of the question. Kelley’s “output” is remarkable for its sheer volume, its intricacy
and its vividness). Dee maintained that the angels laboriously dictated several books
to him this way, through Kelley, some in a special angelic or Enochian language. In 1583, Dee met the visiting impoverished
yet popular Polish nobleman Albert Łaski who, after overstaying his welcome at court,
invited Dee to accompany him on his return to Poland. With some prompting by the “angels”
(again through Kelley) and his worsening status at court, Dee was persuaded to go. Dee, Kelley
and their families left for the Continent in September 1583, but Łaski proved to be
bankrupt and out of favour in his own country. Dee and Kelley began a nomadic life in Central
Europe, meanwhile continuing their spiritual conferences, which Dee recorded meticulously
in his diaries and almanacs. They had audiences with Emperor Rudolf II in Prague Castle and
King Stefan Batory of Poland whom they attempted to convince of the importance of angelic communication.
The meeting with the Polish King, Stefan Batory, took place at the royal castle at Niepołomice
(near Kraków, then the capital of Poland) and was later widely analyzed by Polish historians
(Ryszard Zieliński, Roman Żelewski, Roman Bugaj) and writers (Waldemar Łysiak). While
generally Dee was accepted as a man of wide and deep knowledge, they mistrusted his connection
with the English monarch, Elizabeth I. They could not be sure that their meetings were
without political ramifications. Some thought (and still do) that Dee was in fact a spy
for the English monarch. Nevertheless, the Polish king, a devout Catholic and very cautious
of supernatural media, began their meeting(s) with the affirmation that any prophetic revelations
must be in keeping with the teachings of Jesus Christ, the mission of the Holy Catholic Church,
and the approval of the Pope. In 1587, during a spiritual conference in
Bohemia, Kelley informed Dee that the angel Uriel had ordered the men to share all their
possessions, including their wives. By this time, Kelley had gained some renown as an
alchemist and in fact was more sought-after than Dee in this regard: this was a line of
work that had prospects for serious and long-term financial gain, especially among the royal
families of central Europe. Dee, on the other hand, was more interested in communicating
with the angels who he believed would help him solve the mysteries of the heavens through
mathematics, optics, astrology, science and navigation. It may be that Kelley in fact
wished to end Dee’s dependence on him as a scryer for their increasingly lengthy and
frequent spiritual conferences. The order for wife-sharing caused Dee great anguish,
but he apparently did not doubt its genuineness. They apparently did share wives. However,
Dee broke off the conferences immediately afterwards. Dee returned to England in 1589:
Kelley went on to be the alchemist for Emperor Rudolf II. Nine months later, on 28 February
1588, a son was born to Dee’s wife, whom Dee baptised Theodorus Trebonianus Dee and raised
as his own. It is possible that this child was Kelley’s; Dee was 60 at the time, Edward
Kelley was 32.===Final years===Dee returned to Mortlake after six years abroad
to find his home vandalized, his library ruined and many of his prized books and instruments
stolen. Furthermore, Dee found that increasing criticism of occult practices had made England
even more inhospitable to his magical practices and natural philosophy. Dee sought support
from Elizabeth, who hoped he could persuade Kelley to return and ease England’s economic
burdens through alchemy. She finally appointed Dee Warden of Christ’s College, Manchester,
in 1595. This former College of Priests had been re-established as a Protestant institution
by a Royal Charter of 1578.However, he could not exert much control over the Fellows of
that College, who despised or cheated him. Early in his tenure, he was consulted on the
demonic possession of seven children, but took little interest in the matter, although
he did allow those involved to consult his still extensive library.He left Manchester
in 1605 to return to London. However, he remained Warden until his death. By that time, Elizabeth
was dead, and James I provided no support. Dee spent his final years in poverty at Mortlake,
forced to sell off various of his possessions to support himself and his daughter, Katherine,
who cared for him until the end. He died in Mortlake late in 1608 or early 1609 aged 81.
There are no extant records of the exact date as both the parish registers and Dee’s gravestone
are missing. In 2013 a memorial plaque to Dee was placed on the south wall of the present
church.==Personal life==
Dee was married three times and had eight children. He first married Katherine Constable
in 1565; she died in 1574 and their union resulted in no children. His second (also
childless) marriage to an unknown woman lasted only a year until her death in 1576. From
1577 to 1601, Dee kept a sporadic diary (also referred to as his “almanac”) from which most
of what we know about his life during that time has been gleaned. In 1578 he married
the 23-year-old Jane Fromond: Dee was 51 at the time. Jane had her own connections to
the Elizabethan court: she was a lady in waiting to Elizabeth FitzGerald, Countess of Lincoln,
a position she gave up when she married Dee. When in 1587, Kelley informed Dee of the angel’s
wish that they share wives, Jane Dee (née Fromond) was the wife Dee shared with him.
Although Dee complied with the angel’s supposed request for a while, he was apparently distressed
by the arrangement and it was one reason why the two men parted company not long thereafter.
Some believe that Dee’s son Theodore, born nine months later, could have been Kelley’s
son, not Dee’s.Jane died in Manchester of the bubonic plague and was buried in the Manchester
Cathedral burial grounds in March 1604. Michael, born in Prague, died on his father’s birthday
in 1594. Theodore, born in Třeboň, died in Manchester in 1601. His sons Arthur Dee
and Rowland survived him, as did his daughter Katherine “who was his companion to the end”.
No records exist for his youngest daughters Madinia (sometimes Madima), Frances and Margaret
after 1604, so it is widely assumed they died in the same epidemic that took their mother.
(Dee had by this time ceased keeping his diary).While Arthur was a student at the Westminster School,
Dee wrote a letter to his headmaster echoing the normal worries of boarding school parents.
Arthur was an apprentice in much of his father’s alchemical and scientific work, and was in
fact often his scryer until Kelley came along. Arthur went on to become an alchemist and
hermetic author, whose works were published by Elias Ashmole.As regards Dee’s physical
appearance, the antiquary John Aubrey gives the following description: “He was tall and
slender. He wore a gown like an artist’s gown, with hanging sleeves, and a slit…. A very
fair, clear sanguine complexion… a long beard as white as milk. A very handsome man.”==Achievements=====Thought===
Dee was heavily influenced by the Hermetic and Platonic-Pythagorean doctrines that were
pervasive in the Renaissance. He believed that numbers were the basis of all things
and the key to knowledge. From Hermeticism, he drew the belief that man had the potential
for divine power, and he believed this divine power could be exercised through mathematics.
His ultimate goal was to help bring forth a unified world religion through the healing
of the breach of the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches and the recapture of the pure theology
of the ancients.===Advocacy of English expansion===
From 1570 Dee advocated a policy of political and economic strengthening of England and
imperial expansion into the New World. In his manuscript, Brytannicae reipublicae synopsis
(1570), he outlined the current state of the Elizabethan Realm and was concerned with trade,
ethics and national strength.His 1576 General and Rare Memorials pertayning to the Perfect
Arte of Navigation was the first volume in an unfinished series planned to advocate the
rise of imperial expansion. In the highly symbolic frontispiece, Dee included a figure
of Britannia kneeling by the shore beseeching Elizabeth I, to protect her empire by strengthening
her navy. Dee used Geoffrey’s inclusion of Ireland in Arthur’s imperial conquests to
argue that Arthur had established a ‘British empire’ abroad. He further argued that England
exploit new lands through colonisation and that this vision could become reality through
maritime supremacy. Dee has been credited with the coining of the term British Empire,
however, Humphrey Llwyd has also been credited with the first use of the term in his Commentarioli
Britannicae Descriptionis Fragmentum, published eight years earlier in 1568.Dee posited a
formal claim to North America on the back of a map drawn in 1577–80; he noted Circa
1494 Mr Robert Thorn his father, and Mr Eliot of Bristow, discovered Newfound Land. In his
Title Royal of 1580, he invented the claim that Madog ab Owain Gwynedd had discovered
America, with the intention of ensuring that England’s claim to the New World was stronger
than that of Spain. He further asserted that Brutus of Britain and King Arthur as well
as Madog had conquered lands in the Americas and therefore their heir Elizabeth I of England
had a priority claim there.==Reputation and significance==
About ten years after Dee’s death, the antiquarian Robert Cotton purchased land around Dee’s
house and began digging in search of papers and artifacts. He discovered several manuscripts,
mainly records of Dee’s angelic communications. Cotton’s son gave these manuscripts to the
scholar Méric Casaubon, who published them in 1659, together with a long introduction
critical of their author, as A True & Faithful Relation of What passed for many Yeers between
Dr. John Dee (A Mathematician of Great Fame in Q. Eliz. and King James their Reignes)
and some spirits. As the first public revelation of Dee’s spiritual conferences, the book was
extremely popular and sold quickly. Casaubon, who believed in the reality of spirits, argued
in his introduction that Dee was acting as the unwitting tool of evil spirits when he
believed he was communicating with angels. This book is largely responsible for the image,
prevalent for the following two and a half centuries, of Dee as a dupe and deluded fanatic.
Around the same time the True and Faithful Relation was published, members of the Rosicrucian
movement claimed Dee as one of their number. There is doubt, however, that an organized
Rosicrucian movement existed during Dee’s lifetime, and no evidence that he ever belonged
to any secret fraternity. Dee’s reputation as a magician and the vivid story of his association
with Edward Kelley have made him a seemingly irresistible figure to fabulists, writers
of horror stories and latter-day magicians. The accretion of false and often fanciful
information about Dee often obscures the facts of his life, remarkable as they are in themselves.
It also does nothing to promote his Christian leanings: Dee looked to the angels to speak
to him about how he might heal the very deep and serious rifts between the Roman Catholic
Church, the Reformed Church of England and the Protestant movement in England. Queen
Elizabeth I used him as her court astronomer on a number of occasions not solely because
he practised Hermetic arts, but because he was a deeply religious and learned man whom
she trusted. A revaluation of Dee’s character and significance
came in the 20th century, largely as a result of the work of the historians Charlotte Fell
Smith and Dame Frances Yates. Both writers brought into focus the parallel roles magic,
science and religion held in the Elizabethan Renaissance. Fell Smith writes: “There is
perhaps no learned author in history who has been so persistently misjudged, nay, even
slandered, by his posterity, and not a voice in all the three centuries uplifted even to
claim for him a fair hearing. Surely it is time that the cause of all this universal
condemnation should be examined in the light of reason and science; and perhaps it will
be found to exist mainly in the fact that he was too far advanced in speculative thought
for his own age to understand.” As a result of this and subsequent re-evaluation, Dee
is now viewed as a serious scholar and book-collector, a devoted Christian (albeit during a very
confusing time for that faith), an able scientist, and one of the most learned men of his day.
His personal library at Mortlake was the largest in the country (before it was vandalized),
and was created at enormous and sometimes ruinous personal expense; it was considered
one of the finest in Europe, perhaps second only to that of De Thou. As well as being
an astrological and scientific advisor to Elizabeth and her court, he was an early advocate
of the colonisation of North America and a visionary of a British Empire stretching across
the North Atlantic.Dee promoted the sciences of navigation and cartography. He studied
closely with Gerardus Mercator, and he owned an important collection of maps, globes and
astronomical instruments. He developed new instruments as well as special navigational
techniques for use in polar regions. Dee served as an advisor to the English voyages of discovery,
and personally selected pilots and trained them in navigation. He believed that mathematics
(which he understood mystically) was central to the progress of human learning. The centrality
of mathematics to Dee’s vision makes him to that extent more modern than Francis Bacon,
though some scholars believe Bacon purposely downplayed mathematics in the anti-occult
atmosphere of the reign of James I. It should be noted, though, that Dee’s understanding
of the role of mathematics is radically different from our contemporary view. Dee’s promotion
of mathematics outside the universities was an enduring practical achievement. As with
most of his writings, Dee chose to write in English, rather than Latin, to make his writings
accessible to the general public. His “Mathematical Preface” to Euclid was meant to promote the
study and application of mathematics by those without a university education, and was very
popular and influential among the “mecanicians”: the new and growing class of technical craftsmen
and artisans. Dee’s preface included demonstrations of mathematical principles that readers could
perform themselves without special education or training.During the 20th century, the Municipal
Borough of Richmond (now the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames) honoured John Dee
by naming a street near Mortlake, where he lived, “Dee Road” after him.===Calendar===
Dee was a friend of Tycho Brahe and was familiar with the work (translated into English by
his ward and assistant, Thomas Digges) of Nicolaus Copernicus. Many of his astronomical
calculations were based on Copernican assumptions, but he never openly espoused the heliocentric
theory. Dee applied Copernican theory to the problem of calendar reform. In 1583, he was
asked to advise the Queen about the new Gregorian calendar that had been promulgated by Pope
Gregory XIII from October 1582. His advice was that England should accept it, albeit
with seven specific amendments. The first of these was that the adjustment should not
be the 10 days that would restore the calendar to the time of the Council of Nicaea in 325
AD, but by 11 days, which would restore it to the birth of Christ. Another proposal of
Dee’s was to align the civil and liturgical years, and to have them both start on 1 January.
Perhaps predictably, England chose to spurn any suggestions that had papist origins, despite
any merit they may objectively have, and Dee’s advice was rejected.===Voynich manuscript===
He has often been associated with the Voynich manuscript. Wilfrid Michael Voynich, who bought
the manuscript in 1912, suggested that Dee may have owned the manuscript and sold it
to Rudolph II. Dee’s contacts with Rudolph were far less extensive than had previously
been thought, however, and Dee’s diaries show no evidence of the sale. Dee was, however,
known to have possessed a copy of the Book of Soyga, another enciphered book.===Works===
Monas Hieroglyphica, 1564 Preface to Billingsley’s Euclid (Billingsley’s
translation of Euclid’s Elements), 1570 General and Rare Memorials pertayning to the
Perfect Arte of Navigation, 1577 On the Mystical Rule of the Seven Planets,
1582–1583===Artefacts===The British Museum holds several items once
owned by Dee and associated with the spiritual conferences:
Dee’s Speculum or Mirror (an obsidian Aztec cult object in the shape of a hand-mirror,
brought to Europe in the late 1520s), which was subsequently owned by Horace Walpole.
Jennifer Rampling has claimed that Dee never actually owned this object. The item now residing
in the British Museum was first attributed to Dee by Horace Walpole. Lord Frederick Campbell
had brought “a round piece of shining black marble in a leathern case” to Walpole in an
attempt to ascertain the object’s provenance. According to Walpole, he responded saying
“Oh, Lord, I am the only man in England that can tell you! It is Dr. Dee’s black stone”.
There is no explicit reference to the mirror in any of Dee’s surviving writings. The provenance
of the Museum’s obsidian speculum, as well as the crystal ball, is in fact dubious.
The small wax seals used to support the legs of Dee’s “table of practice” (the table at
which the scrying was performed). The large, elaborately decorated wax “Seal
of God”, used to support the “shew-stone”, the crystal ball used for scrying.
A gold amulet engraved with a representation of one of Kelley’s visions.
A crystal globe, 6 cm in diameter. This item remained unnoticed for many years in the mineral
collection; possibly the one owned by Dee, but the provenance of this object is less
certain than that of the others.In December 2004, both a shew stone (a stone used for
scrying) formerly belonging to Dee and a mid-17th century explanation of its use written by
Nicholas Culpeper were stolen from the Science Museum in London; they were recovered shortly
afterwards.==Literary and cultural references==
Dee was a popular figure in literary works written by his contemporaries, and he has
continued to feature in popular culture ever since, particularly in fiction or fantasy
set during his lifetime or that deals with magic or the occult.===16th and 17th centuries===
Edmund Spenser may be referring to Dee in The Faerie Queene (1596).
William Shakespeare may have modelled the character of Prospero in The Tempest (1610–11)
on Dee.===19th century===
William Harrison Ainsworth includes Dee as a character in his 1840 novel Guy Fawkes.
Dee is the subject of Henry Gillard Glindoni’s painting John Dee performing an experiment
before Queen Elizabeth I.===20th century===
John Dee, and his fictional modern descendant Baron Mueller, are the main characters in
Gustav Meyrink’s 1927 novel The Angel of the West Window (original German title: Der Engel
vom westlichen Fenster). The early twentieth century horror author
H. P. Lovecraft mentions Dee as one of the translators of the fictional book Al Azif
(commonly known as the Necronomicon) in his short fictional essay, History of the Necronomicon,
which reads: “An English translation made by Dr. Dee was never printed, and exists only
in fragments recovered from the original manuscript.” John Dee is one of the main characters of
Peter Ackroyd’s 1993 novel The House of Doctor Dee.===21st century===
John Dee appears as the plot’s main antagonist “the Walker” in Charlie Fletcher’s book Stoneheart
(2006) Dr John Dee serves as a main character in
The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel series by Michael Scott (2007–2012). He
is an English magician and necromancer. Phil Rickman casts John Dee as the main detective,
investigating the disappearance of the bones of King Arthur during the reign of Elizabeth
I in the historical mystery The Bones of Avalon (2010).
The play Burn Your Bookes (2010) by Richard Byrne examines the relationship between John
Dee, Edward Kelley and Edward Dyer. The opera Dr Dee: An English Opera, written
by Damon Albarn, explores Dee’s life and work. It was premiered at the Palace Theatre in
Manchester on 1 July 2011 and opened at the London Coliseum as part of the London 2012
Festival for the Cultural Olympiad in June 2012.==See also==
List of Enochian angels==Notes

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