Hi to everybody and welcome to OptoTubeChannel, the first Italian YouTubeChannel dedicated to Optometry Today let’s talk about the nerual networks which let’s manage information about ocular movements These neural movements, betters named control centers, are at cortical level and at subcortical level At cortical level we can find frontal eye field, in the frontal cortex, and they manage information about voluntary saccades, while in the occipital region of the cortex, we can find visual areas V1,V2,V3,V4,V5 which manage information about pursuit, fixation, vestibo-ocular reflex and optokinetic reflex Subcortical station are vestibular nuclei, which send vestibular signals to oculomotor nuclei then we have superior colliculus, important center of multimodal integration and center that manage information about non voluntary movements like involuntary saccades and then we have the pontine gaze center which manage information about horizontal saccades The important thing is that all these control centers, cortical or subcortical, send informations to oculomotor nuclei which are the last elaboration center of the informations, before the signal is sent to extrinsic ocular muscles and that the movement is materialized. These oculomotor nuclei are formed by horizontal fixation center which manage horizontal movements and is placed at the Variolo Pons level near Abducens nucleus. Then we have vertical fixation center which manages vertical movements and is placed at the level of Pretectus, Mesencephalic area. Oblique movements are manage from either fixation centers with a proportional activation to make start that oblique motion. Of these centers are part paramedian pontine reticular formation and bulbar reticular formation In these reticular formation are motoneurons which give signal to the ocular movement and these motorneurons are Burst, Tonic, Pause, and Burst-Tonic cells, and each one acts in a movement for example burst cell are activated during saccades, tonic during pursuit, pause are inibitory cells toward burst and tonic, and burst-tonic are activated during fixation. From here these motorneurons contact other which are Oculomotor nucleus, third cranial nerve, Troclear nucleus, fourt cranial nerve, which are at the mesencephalus level, and then they contact Abducens nucleus, which is at the Pons level and it’s the sixth cranial nerve. Then these nerves innervate directly extrinsic muscles sending signal of movement to realize this movement. So this is the video about neural network of ocular movements, if you liked subscribe this channel and leave a like. Let’s see at the next video! OPTO-STYLE!!!