Part I – Inflammation

– you’re gonna biology and medicine videos please make sure to subscribe to the Foreman group latest videos please respond sir and please like any girl also ask questions other versions are posting interesting things including ours he also change the quality settings to the highest form compared to graphics this video we’re going to look at inflammation as well as inflammatory response so what is inflammation well inflammation is the sum of the host defenses – infectious or noxious stimuli one of the major aims of inflammation is to bring defense cells immune cells to the area of concern as well as to inactivate or destroy any invaders pathogens and – and to also begin repair in that area inflammation is clinically denoted by the suffix itis so for example dermatitis is inflammation of the skin arthritis is inflammation of the joint let’s look at inflammation in a bigger picture by looking at a map and see what happens when there is for example damage done to our skin and what sort of inflammatory response occurs so inflammation here is the surface of our skin a tissue and we have the submucosa region underneath of course below all this we have blood vessels many blood vessels here I’ve only drawn one blood vessel for simplicity however of course we actually have many blood vessels around the area connecting to each other and then we also have lymphatic vessels here which are important for immune cells to move around in particularly the lymphocytes the lymph vessels will connect to what’s called a lymph node or other organs such as a spleen within the lymph node if there is no infection or infiltration or inflammation we have the naive cells naive lymphocytes known as the B and T cells within the blood vessels we have many types of cells and many types of plasma proteins etc we have erythrocytes which are the red blood cells we have monocytes we have neutrophils which are phagocytes and because we’re talking about inflammation we have also circulating in the blood vessel inflammatory mediators it is important to know that there are two types of inflammatory mediators in general the two types are the plasma inflammatory mediators which means that these plasma are the ones that are circulating inflammatory mediators and these are the kabbala proteins and the kinase they are made by the liver and they circulate with with the blood vessel and are activated upon inflammation the other type of inflammatory mediator is a cell derived in inflammatory mediator meaning that they come from cells and we’ll talk about them soon enough now the cells that we find within the tissue or within the surface of the skin or beneath the skin are what’s known as mast cells mast cells contain histamine granules and here we have another Marcelle now mast cells are really important cells arm to promote inflammation because histamine histamine histamine is a cell drug inflammatory mediator there are other cells we find around this arm tissue are phagocytes tissue macrophages for example as well as dendritic cells because we’re talking about the skin these dendritic skill these dendritic cells are known as Langerhans cells this and they’re all around here so now we’ve got the basics on the map here what happens during an injury for example a cut here well blood will start going out because of the surrounding blood vessels now it’s important to note that there is no step-by-step process in inflammation it’s usually one off one happening with each other or something like that so what can happen is that during this injury a pathogen will infiltrate the body and come into the tissue this pathogen Lister says a bacteria will trigger many responses particularly by the surrounding cells first of all so what happens is that this bacteria actually expresses certain proteins certain molecules on its surface known as PA MP pa MP is recognized by the immune cells they are recognized by the immune cells within the tissue such as mass cells and macrophages once the mast cells recognizes this pathogen or recognizes that a pathogen has has infiltrated the body it will secrete in the histamine it has stored in the granules histamine when secreted will cause vasodilation and increased vascular permeability so here we have the blood vessels increasing invest of a permeability meaning the endothelial cells contract allowing small gaps to form as well as the blood vessel will dilate vasodilation which will increase blood flow meaning that more immune cells can come inside the inflamed tissue because it because the blood vessels are permeable these immune cells in the blood vessel can migrate to the inflamed tissue or the site of infiltration or injury the migration process or immigration process is known as diet the DC’s and I have a video on that now what else could happen during this inflammation process well the macrophages which recognize the PA MP of the pathogen will also secrete cytokines cytokine is also an inflammatory mediator the macrophages will secrete cytokines particularly cytokines TNF alpha tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 these cytokines will cause a local effect and a systemic effect the local effect being inflammation which is very dilation and increase in vascular permeability the cytokines will also trigger or cause tissue repair by activating or stimulating fibroblasts activity now the cytokine systemic effect include a fever so becoming hot as well as leukocytosis meaning the accumulation essentially of white blood cells are circulating within the blood vessel and as usually and it usually happens during an inflammatory response so anyway the cytokines will essentially also promote the immigration of these immune cells from the blood vessels into the inflamed tissue such as a neutrophil and monocytes when the monocytes actually move from the blood vessel into the tissue the monocytes will become macrophages so within the blood vessel or while it’s circulating they are known as monocytes but once they enter tissues they are known as macrophages so let’s talk about repair – as I mentioned the cytokines tnf-alpha interleukin 1 the local effects it causes is repair how does it do this you


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