# Philip Emeagwali | How I Invented a New Internet | Famous Black Inventors and their Inventions

TIME magazine called him

“the unsung hero behind the Internet.” CNN called him “A Father of the Internet.” President Bill Clinton called him

“one of the great minds of the Information Age.” He has been voted history’s greatest scientist

of African descent. He is Philip Emeagwali. He is coming to Trinidad and Tobago

to launch the 2008 Kwame Ture lecture series on Sunday June 8

at the JFK [John F. Kennedy] auditorium UWI [The University of the West Indies]

Saint Augustine 5 p.m. The Emancipation Support Committee

invites you to come and hear this inspirational mind

address the theme: “Crossing New Frontiers

to Conquer Today’s Challenges.” This lecture is one you cannot afford to miss. Admission is free. So be there on Sunday June 8

5 p.m. at the JFK auditorium UWI St. Augustine. [Wild applause and cheering for 22 seconds] [How I Invented a New Internet that is a New

Supercomputer] [What is Philip Emeagwali Famous For in Computing?] [WHAT IS PHILIP EMEAGWALI KNOWN FOR?] I’m Philip Emeagwali. The fundamental problem

of supercomputing was to discover how to solve

the toughest problems arising in mathematics, science,

and engineering. And to discover how to solve

those grand challenge problems across an ensemble of processors

that were identical to each other and that shared nothing

between each other with each processor operating

its own operating system. The latter was the biggest

scientific question in the unknown world

of the supercomputer. The concrete, measurable,

and visible proof that I was in the terra incognita,

or in the unexplored territory, of the supercomputer

was that it made the news headlines that I experimentally

parallel processed and communicated across a new internet. After my invention

of practical parallel processing, I became well known

but not known well. That is, many knew Philip Emeagwali

as an inventor but few understood his invention. It’s easier to recognize my face

than to understand my abstract contributions

to mathematics, physics, and computer science. [Who is Philip Emeagwali?] I am the computational mathematician

that contributed to a greater understanding

of how to execute the fastest floating-point calculations of arithmetic. I am the research mathematician

who figured out how to solve the largest system of equations

of algebra that must be solved

to discover and recover otherwise elusive

crude oil and natural gas. I am the mathematician

that invented new partial differential equations

of the calculus of extreme-scaled petroleum reservoir simulation. For those reasons, I said that

I am well known as a supercomputer scientist

that contributed to the development of the computer

but I am not known well as a mathematician

that contributed to mathematics. It’s easier to understand that

I contributed to the modern computer or to the modern supercomputer

that’s an internet than to understand my contributions

to computational mathematics and even computational physics. Most people think calculus

is difficult to understand. The invention

of the fastest computer is easier to recall

than the invention of the most advanced expression

in calculus that, in turn, is the recurring decimal

in nearly all the workloads of supercomputers. [School Reports on Philip Emeagwali] A 12-year-old writing

a school inventor report on Philip Emeagwali

cannot explain to her teacher how the new nine

partial differential equations that I contributed to calculus

is more accurate than the previous equations

in textbooks. On the other hand,

she could explain my contributions to the development of the supercomputer

that is a new internet. The technology called

practical parallel processing that I discovered

on the Fourth of July 1989 was called a grand challenge

for a good reason. Because it was a once-impossible problem

that was in the realm of science-fiction the machinery was abandoned

by 25,000 supercomputer scientists that were only at home

with scalar and/or vector processing. I was the only full time programmer

of the 1980s that was at the frontier

of the most massively parallel supercomputers. In the 1980s, attempting to harness

64 binary thousand processors and to use them to solve

the biggest scientific challenges evoked a sense of foreboding. In the 1980s, harnessing

one billion processors—that defined and outlined

a massively parallel supercomputer —and using them to solve

a grand challenge problem was as science fiction

as sending an astronaut to planet Mars. [WHY I PARALLEL PROCESSED ALONE] In the 1980s, to parallel process

a grand challenge problem was to make the impossible-to-solve

initial-boundary value problem of calculus and physics

possible-to-solve as a discretized problem

in large-scale algebra. The reason I parallel processed alone

was that I was the only person with the confidence to do so. In the 1970s and ‘80s,

practical parallel supercomputing across a new internet

that was a new global network of 65,536 processors

was like shooting at as many birds in the dark. I parallel processed

to discover speeds in computation and communication

that were previously unseen, and that made the news headlines

in 1989. Supercomputer scientists

that had seen me daily in the 1980s

first read about my discovery of practical parallel supercomputing

and read about it in newspapers, instead of hearing about my discovery from

me. For me as a lone

supercomputer scientist, breaking the speed records

in both computation and communication and breaking those records alone

and breaking those records for the first time

and breaking those records with a parallel processing machinery

was the metaphorical equivalence of being the first solo mountain climber

that climbed to the peak of Mount Everest. The significance of reaching the top

of Mount Everest and being the first person to reach it

was an achievement in geographical exploration

that redefined the boundary of the reachable regions of the Earth. I was in the news headlines because

I was the first lone wolf supercomputer scientist

to climb to the peak of the Mount Everest

of massively parallel supercomputing across a new ensemble of

65,536 tightly-coupled, commodity-off-the shelf processors

that shared nothing between each other and that were equal distances apart

from each other. [Inventing a New Internet] [Thirty Thousand Years in One Day] Prior to my experimental discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing and my discovery

of how to solve a grand challenge problem

and how to solve it across a new internet,

the fastest computations were recorded

on the scalar supercomputers of the late 1940s

through early 1970s. The fastest computations

were also recorded on the vector supercomputers

of the mid-1970s through late 1980s. I first entered

into the world of scalar supercomputing on June 20, 1974

at 1800 SW Campus Way Corvallis, Oregon, United States. That scalar supercomputer

solved only one initial-boundary value problem

of calculus at a time. The ensemble of 65,536 processors

that I programmed in the 1980s and programmed

as a new internet and that made the news headlines

in 1989 solved 65,536

initial-boundary value problems at once. Initial-boundary value problems

of calculus are at the foundation

of computational physics. Nine in ten supercomputer cycles

consumed in the 1980s were consumed by extreme-scale

computational physicists. Extreme-scale, high-resolution computational

physics is executed across

a massively parallel supercomputer that occupies the space

of a soccer field. For that reason, computational physics

is a branch of physics that lies between theoretical

and experimental physics. That is, computational physics

is the third branch of physics. That branch of physics is midway

between theory and experiment. That branch of physics encompassed

both theory and experiment. My experimental discovery

of how to solve many initial-boundary value problems

that are governed by a system of partial differential equations

of calculus and governed by its companion

and discretized system of partial difference equations

of algebra and my discovery

of how to solve them at once opened the door

to the parallel supercomputer that is the world’s fastest supercomputer

that achieves its record-breaking supercomputing speed

by solving millions upon millions of initial-boundary value problems

and solving them at once. In computational physics,

my experimental discovery made it possible

for the supercomputer of today to reduce the time-to-solution

of the biggest scientific challenges and reduce it from

10.65 million days, or 30,000 years, to just one day. Without parallel supercomputing,

a global warming prediction will occur 30,000 years after

the said global warming occurred. [Crossing the Frontier of Supercomputer Knowledge] My quest for the fastest speeds

in computing demanded that I parallel process across

a new internet that is a new global network

of 64 binary thousand processors. In the 1980s,

massively parallel processing defined the boundary

of the supercomputer. The reason I am well known

but not known well was that I was the first person

to enter into the unexplored territory where the fastest computations

can be executed across a new internet. The proof that I entered into

that unexplored territory was that I recorded speeds

in supercomputing that were previously unrecorded. That contribution

made more news headlines than any singular contribution

made by an individual to the development of the computer. In the 1970s and ‘80s,

the complete knowledge of the parallel supercomputer

was out of the reach of human beings. That is, I parallel processed

in that new frontier of knowledge and did so without a map, or a textbook. On the Fourth of July 1989,

I became the first person to provide practical, in-depth,

and easy to understand explanations of how to harness millions of processors

and how to use those processors to solve a real-world problem

that is chopped up into millions of smaller problems. My invention

of practical parallel supercomputing made the news headlines because

I also discovered how to harness the new supercomputer

to solve grand challenge problems that will be otherwise impossible

to solve. [New Internet Versus Old Computer] In the history of computing,

the invention of parallel supercomputing is the biggest change

in the way we think about the supercomputer. In the old way,

the fastest supercomputer solved only one problem at a time,

or in sequence. In my new way,

the fastest supercomputer solved ten million problems

at once, or in parallel. I was in the news because

I discovered how to experimentally perform

65,536 synchronized parallel communication

that was as many times faster than your email. The supercomputer that I programmed

in 1974 only computed sequentially

and did so within only one central processing unit. The virtual supercomputer

that I programmed in the 1980s computed in parallel

and did so in the plural senses and communicated across

a new internet that is a new global network of

64 binary thousand processors. [Philip Emeagwali: A Father of the Internet] [How I Invented a New Internet] Who invented the internet? The Internet

has many fathers and mothers as well as aunts and uncles. We can only have

one father of the Internet that invented a new internet. The father of the Internet

should at least invent a new internet. I am called a father of the Internet because

I am the only father of the Internet that invented a new internet. I invented my new internet

by, first, theorizing it back in 1974 and then continuously developed it

for the subsequent fifteen years and developed

that small copy of the internet and did so until I actualized it

as the fastest computation back on the Fourth of July 1989. My two-raised-to-power sixteen commodity-off-the-shelf

processors were tightly-coupled to each other

and were equal distances apart from each other. I mathematically visualized

my 64 binary thousand processors as tightly-encircling a hyper globe

that is bounded by the hypersurface

of a sixteen-dimensional hypersphere that is embedded

within a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. I visualized

the physical and mathematical domains of my extreme-scale, high-resolution

general circulation model as the 62-mile deep

hyper-spherical shell that was bounded by two hyperspheres. The inner hypersphere

has a diameter of 7,900 miles that corresponded to

the surface of the Earth. The outer hypersphere

has a diameter of 7,962 miles that corresponded

to the outer boundary of the atmosphere of the Earth. I visualized

the two-raised-to-power sixteen vertices of my hypercube

to be midway (or 31 miles) between those two hyperspheres. I drew parallels

between my new internet that was a new global network

of processors and how I envisioned

simulating global warming. My two hyperspheres

were parallel to each other. My two hyperspheres

extended in the same direction. My two hyperspheres

never converged or diverged. My 65,536 processors

were paralleled with respect to the climate model

that I divided into 65,536 smaller climate models. Those climate models

were identical in domain size. [Paradigm Shift in Computing] My discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing created a paradigm shift

on how we look at the computer and the internet

of tomorrow. Practical parallel supercomputing

led to my new definition of the supercomputer

as powered by millions upon millions of processors,

rather than one singular processor. Practical parallel supercomputing

was mocked, ridiculed, and rejected during the sixty-seven years

onward of its first conceptualization that occurred in print

back on February 1, 1922. After my discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989,

the supercomputer industry took my invention

and made it the vital technology within every supercomputer. But for the sixty-seven years

prior to my invention, practical parallel supercomputing

remained in the realm of science-fiction. My contribution

to the development of the computer is this:

I upgraded the parallel supercomputer

from science-fiction to non-fiction. I discovered how to maintain

a one-problem to one-processor correspondence, or analogy,

between the smaller general circulation models

and the processors. I discovered

how to communicate synchronously and how to compute simultaneously

and how to communicate and compute and do both 65,536 times faster

and do both on 65,536 central processing units,

and across sixteen times as many email paths. In other words, I paradigm shifted

in my email communication across my new internet. I discovered

how to harness processors and how to shift

from the singular, person-to-person email

to the plural processor-to-processor emails

that I synchronized across my new internet

that is a new global network of 65,536 tightly-coupled

central processing units. That new global network defined

a parallel supercomputer that is a new internet de facto. I invented a new internet

that tightly-encircled a hyper globe. My hyper globe is shaped like a

sixteen-dimensional hypersphere in a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. My supercomputing paradigm

shifted because I computed simultaneously

on 64 binary thousand central processing units

and emailed synchronously across one binary million email wires. That was how I discovered

that practical parallel processing must be vital

to the supercomputer that solves many problems at once,

or in parallel. [President Bill Clinton on the Contributions

of Philip Emeagwali] That invention

of practical parallel supercomputing embodied

the Philip Emeagwali formula that then U.S. President Bill Clinton praised

in his White House speech that was delivered on August 26, 2000. President Bill Clinton

recognized my contribution to the development of the

parallel supercomputer, in part, because it made the news headlines,

eleven years earlier. That contribution

was my experimental discovery of how to record

the fastest computations and how to record

those fastest computations and record them

across a parallel supercomputer. I recorded those fastest computations

by solving 65,536 problems at once, instead of solving only

one problem at a time. [Philip Emeagwali: A Father of the Internet] I’m often asked:

What is Philip Emeagwali known for? My answer is this:

I am the only father of the Internet that invented a new internet. I experimentally discovered

how to execute the fastest computations and how to execute them across

a new internet. That new internet

is a new global network of processors

that were tightly-coupled to each other. I visualized the processors

of my new internet to be equidistant from each other

and to be evenly spread out across the surface of a globe

that I also visualized as embedded within

a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. In my discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing, I used my new internet

to redefine the boundary of human knowledge

of how to execute the world’s fastest computations

and most, importantly, harness that supercomputer speed

to solve the toughest problems arising in science, engineering,

and medicine. [The Importance of Supercomputers] [How Philip Emeagwali Solved the Toughest

Problem in Mathematics and Physics] My experimental discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989

of how to reduce the supercomputer time-to-solution of grand challenge problems

and reduce it from 180 years to just one day, in effect,

distinguished between what’s computable

and what’s not computable. Climate models must be used

to accurately foresee otherwise unforeseeable

long-term climate changes. In theory, extreme-scale

high-resolution climate models are computable. But in practice a climate modeler

may need to run more than a thousand accurate simulations. If each accurate simulation

of the planet’s climate has a time-to-solution of 180 years,

then the climate modeler that began her simulation

two millennia ago, or in the year Jesus Christ was born,

will complete her forecast in nearly two hundred millennia

from now. I was the first

computational physicist to experimentally discover

how to parallel process across an internet. I was in the news headlines because

I discovered how to parallel process extreme-scaled

computational fluid dynamics codes and how to simultaneously execute them, in

parallel, and how to synchronously email them

across a new internet. I was the first person

to experimentally discover how to reduce

180 years of time-to-solution of a grand challenge problem

being solved on one computer to just one day of time-to-solution

across a new internet that is de facto one supercomputer. That new internet

is a new global network of sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] identical central processing units

that I visualized as equal distances apart from each other

and on the surface of a globe that I mathematically visualized

as embedded within a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. [PHILIP EMEAGWALI AT THE UNEXPLORED TERRITORY

OF CALCULUS] Along my way to that terra incognita,

called parallel supercomputing, that was then an unknown

and unexplored territory that had no map,

I employed a system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent,

and three-dimensional partial differential equations of calculus

that encoded a set of laws of physics,

including the Second Law of Motion. I used those partial differential equations

to formulate sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]

initial-boundary value grand challenge problems. I discretized

those grand challenge problems of calculus

to obtain a set of linear equations of extreme-scale algebra. I reduced calculus to algebra because

algebra is the only way the supercomputer can experience

the laws of physics. Those linear equations

were at the algebraic core of my extreme-scale

computational fluid dynamics codes. I executed my 65,536 codes,

in parallel, and across as many tightly-coupled processors. In a manner of speaking,

I used those sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]

processors to poke my nose into the laws of physics

and to discover how the millions upon millions

of processors that powers the modern supercomputer

can be harnessed and used to foresee the otherwise unforeseeable

climatic changes. I discovered that I can use those

64 binary thousand processors that outlined and defined

my new internet and that I can use them

as one cohesive supercomputer that can execute

an extreme-scaled, high-resolution global circulation model. Parallel supercomputing

is a precondition to foreseeing global warming. My contribution

to the development of the computer is this: I redefined the boundary

of what the computer can compute, and I redefined that boundary

by a factor of sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]. [Philip Emeagwali Equations Explained] [What is Philip Emeagwali Famous for in Math?] I am often asked:

What are the Philip Emeagwali Equations? Or, how were the

Philip Emeagwali Equations derived? The Philip Emeagwali Equations

are a system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional

partial differential equations that are symbolic restatements

in calculus of multi-phased fluids flowing across a porous medium. The Philip Emeagwali Equations

encoded into calculus the Second Law of Motion of physics. The Philip Emeagwali Equations

model the three-phase, three-dimensional flows

of crude oil, natural gas, and injected water

that are flowing one mile deep and flowing across

an oilfield that is the size of a town. I have been presenting the

Philip Emeagwali Equations to research mathematicians

and doing so since the early 1980s. The Philip Emeagwali Equations

were the cover story of the June 1990 issue

of the SIAM News. The SIAM News

is the premier publication for mathematicians. The SIAM News

is the flagship publication of the Society for Industrial

and Applied Mathematics. The SIAM News

presents new mathematical knowledge as written by research mathematicians

for research mathematicians. I also presented

the Philip Emeagwali Equations at invited lectures that I delivered to

research mathematicians in the United States. I delivered an invited lecture

on my contributions to mathematics and I delivered that lecture

to the largest international congress of mathematicians,

called ICIAM ’91. That congress is the Olympics

of the world of mathematics and is held once every four years. My ICIAM ’91 lecture

was at eleven [11] in the morning of Monday July 8, 1991,

in the Dover Room of the Washington Sheraton Hotel

in Washington in the District of Columbia,

United States. The complete mathematical description of the

invention of the Philip Emeagwali Equations

is posted at emeagwali dot com and shared at the YouTube channel of Philip

Emeagwali. In summary,

the Philip Emeagwali Equations is akin in mathematical structure

to the iconic Navier-Stokes equations that were used to design jet aircrafts, and

used to model the flow of bloods flowing across veins and arteries. Due to its importance,

the Navier-Stokes equations were used to define

one of the seven millennium problems of mathematics. The system of Navier-Stokes equations

own itself to the oceans, wind, and fire. Just like the system of

Philip Emeagwali equations own itself to the injected water,

crude oil, and natural gas that flows one mile deep

and flows inside an oilfield that is the size of a town. The differential equation

plays a central role in subdisciplines of mathematics,

such as complex analysis, Lie algebra theory

[pronounced /liː/ “Lee”], and probability theory. My discovery

of practical parallel processing can be extended to

all boundary value problems of calculus

that are governed by partial differential equations,

such as Maxwell’s equations of electrodynamics,

diffusion equation of heat and mass transfer,

beam and plate equations of solid mechanics,

lubrication theory of fluid mechanics, Hodgkin-Huxley equations

of neurobiology, Fisher’s and reaction-diffusion equations

of genetics and population dynamics, and the Black-Scholes equation

of financial engineering. For these partial differential equations,

the timescales for discretizing and solving them

range from one trillionth of a second to a thousand years. And the length scales for solving them

range from the sub-atomic to the astronomical. [Millennium Equations Versus Philip Emeagwali

Equations] The various formulations

of the partial differential equations governing the flows of fluids

were almost independently derived by Claude-Louis Navier,

Siméon-Denis Poisson, Barré de Saint Venant,

and George Stokes. Those partial differential equations

were derived between 1827 and 1845. The Philip Emeagwali equations

were my independent derivations of new partial differential equations

that I formulated when I was a research mathematician

of the early 1980s and in College Park

(Maryland, United States). The Philip Emeagwali equations

were the governing equations that encoded the time-dependent

and three-dimensional subterranean motions

of crude oil, injected water, and natural gas

that flow one-mile deep and across an oilfield and towards

production oil wells. The mathematical difference between

the Navier-Stokes Equations as written in the millennium problem

of mathematics and the Philip Emeagwali Equations

is that the latter govern the three-dimensional,

three-phase fluids flowing across a porous medium

that is one mile deep and that is the size of a town. Please allow me a couple of minutes

to speak only to the mathematicians in this audience. In most fluid dynamics textbooks,

the Navier-Stokes Equations are written in compact, vector form as: rho, the fluid density,

times the sum of the partial

of v, the fluid velocity in vector, with respect to the partial

of t, the independent variable time, (that is, the change in velocity

with respect to time that is called the temporal acceleration)

plus the product of the fluid velocity in vector

and nabla (or upside down delta

and the gradient operator) v, the fluid velocity in vector

(that is, the convective acceleration) is equal to

minus nabla p, the fluid pressure term (that is, the fluid flows

in the direction of the largest change in pressure),

plus the product of nabla and capital T

(where capital T is the stress tensor for viscous fluids)

plus f (the body forces

such as wind, gravity, and electromagneticism). I stated a vector equation

for each of my three phases, namely, crude oil, injected water,

and natural gas. That is equivalent

to nine scalar equations. My unknowns were the velocity

and the pressure. In three spatial dimensions,

I have three equations and four unknowns, namely,

the pressure and the three scalar velocities. For that reason, I introduced

a system of supplementary partial differential equations. Those extra partial differential equations

encode the law of conservation of mass for the crude oil, natural gas,

and injected water phases. Those continuity equations

are the products of nabla

(or the gradient operator) and v,

the fluid velocity in vector equals

zero. [The Internet in a Million Years] [The Millennium Problem of Mathematics] One of the seven millennium problems

of mathematics is to prove or give a counter-example

of this statement: [open quote]

“In three space dimensions and time, given an initial velocity field,

there exists a vector velocity and a scalar pressure field,

which are both smooth and globally defined,

that solve the Navier–Stokes equations.” [end quote]

One million dollars will be given to the first person

to prove that statement. [Contributions of Philip Emeagwali to Mathematics] In mathematical physics textbooks

dealing with the subject of multiphase fluids flowing across

a porous medium, the partial derivative terms

on the left hand side of the partial differential equations

that I described are non-zero. Those mathematical terms

encoded both the temporal and the convective acceleration forces. By the definition of the word “inertia”

as the tendency of fluids in motion to remain in motion

those two inertial forces exist whenever and wherever

any fluid is in motion. Yet, those two forces

were erroneously zeroed in every mathematical physics textbooks on

porous media flows. My contribution to mathematics

that was the cover stories of top mathematics publications

is this: I discovered that those egregrious

mathematical errors were coded and transferred into

supercomputers and communicated across

a tightly-coupled ensemble of millions upon millions

of processors that defines and outlines

the modern supercomputer. In expanded form, for three phase,

three dimensional fluid flows, those temporal and convective

inertial terms corresponded to the thirty-six (36) partial

derivative terms that I invented and added to

the forty-five (45) partial derivative terms

that were described in mathematical physics textbooks

that dealt with petroleum reservoir simulation. My contribution to mathematics

is this: I extended the borders

of mathematical knowledge and I did so by a distance of

thirty-six (36) partial derivative terms

that encoded the fluid dynamical processes

at a distance of one mile beneath the surface of the Earth. [Philip Emeagwali on Inventing a New Internet] The massively parallel supercomputer

that I discovered to be faster than the vector supercomputer

communicated across its central processing units

and, therefore, was not a computer per se. It was a [quote unquote]

“virtual supercomputer” that was shortened to

and renamed as a supercomputer. I was in the news headlines

back in 1989 because I discovered

how to compute and communicate and how to do both across

that virtual supercomputer that I visualized

as a new internet de facto. That discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing was how I redefined the boundary

of what a new internet can communicate, and redefined that boundary

of human knowledge by a factor of sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]. That discovery

of the practical parallel supercomputer pushed the frontier of

the Internet technology and did so because

it is a theoretical discovery of the Internet

and an idealized model of a planetary supercomputer-hopeful

that is a new internet. That new Internet

is a new global network of billions of computers. The new supercomputer

that I experimentally parallel processed through

is a new global network of 65,536 identical

central processing units that I visualized

as equal distances apart and on the surface of a hyper globe

embedded inside in a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. I use the word “internet”

is this manner because I prefer that the technology

define the name, rather than the name

define the technology. [Philip Emeagwali on Inventing a New Computer

Science] [PHILIP EMEAGWALI ON INVENTING A NEW COMPUTATIONAL

PHYSICS] My parallel supercomputer

is a new internet that’s faithful to its dictionary definition

as a new global network of processors. Those processors

within that new internet were tightly-coupled to each other. Those processors

within that new internet were equal distances apart

from each other. Each processor

within that new internet operated its own operating system. As the supercomputer scientist

that discovered practical parallel supercomputing,

I was only faithful to the laws of physics

as well as to the laws of logic. I was not faithful to Amdahl’s Law. Amdahl’s Law

was merely a human law that erroneously decreed that

the parallel supercomputer will forever remain

a huge waste of everybody’s time. I was not faithful

to out-of-date definitions and soon-to-be-obsolete supercomputers. In 1989, I discovered how to

experimentally parallel process and process

computational fluid dynamics codes and process them through

a new global network of sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] central processing units

that I described as a new internet. I use the word “internet”

to define the new global network of

sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]

central processing units that I theoretically discovered

in the 1970s and experimentally discovered

on the Fourth of July 1989 in Los Alamos, New Mexico,

United States. [THE WAYS OF PRE-HUMAN COUNTING] A long time ago,

our hunter gatherer ancestors added the fruits of their labors

by counting on their fingers and toes. Three thousand five hundred years [3,500]

ago, merchants in China

used the abacus to add and multiply two numbers. The abacus

was the manual computing aid of ancient China. I was asked:

“What supercomputing aid could be relevant in Year Million,

or in a million years?” The answer to what supercomputing aid

could be used in a million years is best understood

by looking at the counting aid that was used a million years ago. A million years ago,

our pre-human ancestors roamed across the African savannahs

and did so on four legs. The counting ability

of our pre-human ancestors of a million years ago

was about as abstract as that of a chimpanzee. [Post-Human Supercomputing of Year Million] I believe that

our post-human descendants of Year Million

will develop Year Million supercomputers that will make them super-intelligent. I believe that our post-human descendants

will invent their Year Million supercomputers

that will enable them to safely travel to distant galaxies. I believe that

our post-human descendants will invent Year Million supercomputers

that will enable them to reinvent themselves

as pulsating brains that are safely encased

and floating in the middle and safety

of the Atlantic Ocean. I believe that

our post-human descendants of one thousand millennia

will see us, their distant human ancestors,

as retarded as donkeys and perhaps use those of us

that did not evolve to their level of intelligence

as their human donkeys. I believe that

our post-human descendants could achieve immortality

and eternal bliss but yet deny that immortality

to lesser beings, such as human beings

and other beings. And I still believe that

our post-human descendants will still need to add

and multiply numbers. The reason is that the need to add

and multiply numbers was around for our pre-human ancestors

of one hundred and fifty thousand [150,000] years ago,

and was around a million years ago, and could be around

in a million years. [Philip Emeagwali on Inventing a New Computer

Science] In the 1980s, my intellect

was questioned and I was discredited by white scientists

who could not understand the extremely difficult subject

of how to parallel process and how to solve the toughest problems

arising in science and engineering and how to solve them across

a new internet that was a new global network of

millions of processors. On the Fourth of July 1989,

I discovered a new path that led to a new computer science. In 1989, my 1,057-page research report

on the new computer science of how I parallel processed across

my ensemble of 65,536 processors was rejected. I was mocked and made fun of

and advised that parallel processing was a huge waste of time. The first scientists

that reviewed my invention could not understand parallel processing. Those scientists denied that I could

parallel process and solve the grand challenge problem

of supercomputing and solve it alone. Another reason my invention

was discredited was that white scientists

did not believe that a black scientist that worked alone

could solve the very multidisciplinary grand challenge problem

that they could not solve as a team. That scientific problem

was called a grand challenge because massively parallel supercomputing

straddled the frontiers of mathematics, physics,

and computer science. [Supercomputing Across the Internet] [LESSONS FROM JUNE 1974] My quest for the fastest way to add

and multiply numbers and do so on a supercomputer

began on Thursday June 20, 1974. The quest began on a supercomputer

that was at 1800 SW Campus Way, Corvallis, Oregon, United States. My experimental discovery

of how to always perform the fastest calculations

and how to use that new knowledge of supercomputing

to solve the grand challenge problems that arise in science and engineering

was the cover story of the May 1990 issue

of the SIAM News. The acronym “SIAM”

stands for the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. The SIAM News

is the flagship publication of the mathematics community. My experimental discovery

of how to reduce the time-to-solution for solving a grand challenge problem

and reduce it from 180 years, or 65,536 days,

on one isolated processor to just one day across

a new internet that is a new global network of

65,536 processors entered into the June 20, 1990 issue

of the Wall Street Journal. Looking back to 1974,

I learned that programming the parallel supercomputer

and doing so back then was akin to the Wright Brothers

learning how to fly an airplane

and doing so six decades earlier. Back then, spectators were asking

the Wright Brothers: “Why do you want to fly?” For the same reason,

programmers of the 1970s were asking me:

“Why do you want to parallel process?” In the 1970s, it was often said that

parallel processing is a huge waste of everybody’s time. And it was also said that

parallel processing is a beautiful theory

that lacked an experimental confirmation. [INFLUENCE OF MODERN COMPUTING] Parallel supercomputing

that was uncharted territory in the 1970s and ‘80s

opened an unknown world in the 1990s through 2010s. Today, all computers are multi-cored,

or are powered by many processors that are doing many things at once,

or in parallel. My experimental discovery

of how to speedup 180 years of sequential processing

to only one day of parallel supercomputing

opened the door for the manufacturing of Japanese, Chinese,

and American parallel supercomputers. The reason the Japanese or Chinese

or American supercomputer is one of the world’s fastest

is because it embodied my discovery of practical parallel supercomputing

and used my new knowledge to reduce the time-to-solution

of grand challenge problems arising in computational physics

and science. A Chinese supercomputer

reduced its time-to-solution from thirty thousand [30,000] years,

or 10.65 million days, of sequential processing

on one isolated processor to just one day

of parallel supercomputing across an ensemble of

10.65 million processors. I began my quest

for the fastest arithmetical computations and began it in June 1970

and began with an analog computer, called a slide rule,

and began in Onitsha, Nigeria. I believe that in a million years

our post-human descendants will still be searching

for their fastest supercomputer that is perhaps

the size of their known universe. Finally, I believe that

the computing technique that was around the longest

will remain around the longest. The need to add and multiply numbers

was around for our pre-human ancestors of one million years ago. That need to compute at the fastest speeds

could be around for our post-human ancestors

of Year Million. The research supercomputer scientist

must always remain a polymath and a magician

that turns science fiction to non-fiction. We need to discover that

the invisible is, sometimes, visible; that the impossible is, sometimes, possible;

and that the unforeseeable is, sometimes, foreseeable. That never-ending need

for faster computations means that the supercomputer

must be ahead of itself at all times. To invent is to create something

out of nothing. We create tomorrow

by what we invent today. What we don’t discover

will do what it wishes. And my experimental discovery

of how parallel processing powers the computer

and the supercomputer is how I will tell posterity that

I—Chukwurah Philip Emeagwali— was once here. Thank you. I’m Philip Emeagwali. [Smiling] [Wild applause and cheering for 17 seconds] Insightful and brilliant lecture