Syama Prasad Mukherjee | Wikipedia audio article


Shyama Prasad Mukherjee (6 July 1901 – 23
June 1953) was an Indian politician, barrister and academician, who served as Minister for
Industry and Supply in Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s cabinet. After falling out with Nehru,
Mukherjee quit the Indian National Congress and founded the right wing nationalist political
party Bharatiya Jana Sangh, a predecessor to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), in 1951.
He was also the president of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha from 1943 to 1946. Mukherjee
was strongly opposed to Article 370 seeing as a threat to unity of the country and fought
against it inside and outside the parliament with one of the goals of Bharatiya Jana Sangh
being abrogation of the article. He died in 1953 due to heart attack. Since BJP is the
successor party of Bhartiya Jana Sangh, Mukherjee is regarded as the founder of BJP too.==Early life and academic career==
Shyama Prasad Mukherjee was born in a Bengali Hindu family on 6 July 1901 in Calcutta (Kolkata).
His father was Ashutosh Mukherjee, a judge of the High Court of Calcutta, Bengal, who
was also Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta. His mother was Jogamaya Devi
Mukherjee.He enrolled in Bhawanipur’s Mitra Institution in 1906 and his behaviour in school
was later described favourably by his teachers. In 1914, he passed his matriculation examination
and was admitted into Presidency College. He stood seventeenth in the Inter Arts Examination
in 1916and graduated in English, securing the first position in first class in 1921.
He was married to Sudha Devi on 16 April 1922. Mukherjee also completed an M.A. in Bengali,
being graded as first class in 1923 and also became a fellow of the Senate in 1923. He
completed his B.L. in 1924.He enrolled as an advocate in Calcutta High Court in 1924,
the same year in which his father had died. Subsequently, he left for England in 1926
to study at Lincoln’s Inn and was called to the English Bar in the same year. In 1934,
at the age of 33, he became the youngest Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta; he held the
office until 1938. During his term as Vice-Chancellor, Rabindranath Tagore delivered the University
Convocation Address in Bengali for the first time, and the Indian vernacular was introduced
as a subject for the highest examination. Mukherjee received the D.Litt from Calcutta
University on 26 November 1938.==Political career before independence==
Mukherjee started his political career in 1929, when he entered the Bengal Legislative
Council as an Indian National Congress (INC) candidate representing Calcutta University.
However, he resigned the next year when the INC decided to boycott the legislature. Subsequently,
he contested the election as an independent candidate and was elected in the same year.
In 1937, he was elected as an independent candidate in the elections which brought the
Krishak Praja Party-All India Muslim League coalition to power.He served as the Finance
Minister of Bengal Province in 1941–42 under A.K. Fazlul Haq’s Progressive Coalition government
which was formed on 12 December 1941 after the resignations of Muslim League ministers
of the government. During his tenure, his statements against the government were censored
and his movements were restricted. He was also prevented from visiting the Midnapore
district in 1942 when severe floods caused a heavy loss of life and property. He resigned
on 20 November 1942 accusing the British government of trying to hold on to India under any cost
and criticised its repressive policies against the Quit India Movement. After resigning,
he mobilised support and organised relief with the help of Mahabodhi Society, Ramakrishna
Mission and Marwari Relief Society. In 1946, he was again elected as an independent candidate
from the Calcutta University. He was elected as a member of the Constituent Assembly of
India in the same year.===Leader of the Hindu Mahasabha===
Mukherjee joined the Hindu Mahasabha in Bengal in 1939 and became its acting president that
same year. He was appointed as the working president of the organisation in 1940. In
February 1941, Mukherjee told a Hindu rally that if Muslims wanted to live in Pakistan
they should “pack their bag and baggage and leave India … [to] wherever they like”.
He was elected as the President of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha in 1943. He remained in this
position till 1946, with Laxman Bhopatkar becoming the new President in the same year.Mukherjee
demanded the partition of Bengal in 1946 to prevent the inclusion of its Hindu-majority
areas in a Muslim-dominated East Pakistan. A meeting held by the Mahasabha on 15 April
1947 in Tarakeswar authorised him to take steps for ensuring partition of Bengal. In
May 1947, he wrote a letter to Lord Mountbatten telling him that Bengal must be partitioned
even if India was not. He also opposed a failed bid for a united but independent Bengal made
in 1947 by Sarat Bose, the brother of Subhas Chandra Bose, and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy,
a Bengali Muslim politician. His views were strongly affected by the Noakhali genocide
in East Bengal, where mobs belonging to the Muslim League massacred Hindus.===Opposition to Quit India Movement===
Following the Hindu Mahasabha’s official decision to boycott the Quit India movement and the
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh’s decision of non-participation in the movement, Mukherjee
wrote a letter to Sir John Herbert, Governor of Bengal as to how they should respond to
“Quit India” movement. In this letter, dated 26 July 1942 he wrote: Let me now refer to the situation that may
be created in the province as a result of any widespread movement launched by the Congress.
Anybody, who during the war, plans to stir up mass feeling, resulting internal disturbances
or insecurity, must be resisted by any Government that may function for the time being
Mukherjee in this letter reiterated that the Fazlul Haq-led Bengal Government, along with
its alliance partner Hindu Mahasabha would make every possible effort to defeat the Quit
India Movement in the province of Bengal and made a concrete proposal in regard to this: The question is how to combat this movement
(Quit India) in Bengal? The administration of the province should be carried on in such
a manner that in spite of the best efforts of the Congress, this movement will fail to
take root in the province. It should be possible for us, especially responsible Ministers,
to be able to tell the public that the freedom for which the Congress has started the movement,
already belongs to the representatives of the people. In some spheres it might be limited
during the emergency. Indians have to trust the British, not for the sake for Britain,
not for any advantage that the British might gain, but for the maintenance of the defense
and freedom of the province itself. You, as Governor, will function as the constitutional
head of the province and will be guided entirely on the advice of your Minister.
The Indian historian R.C. Majumdar noted this fact and states: Shyam Prasad ended the letter with a discussion
of the mass movement organised by the Congress. He expressed the apprehension that the movement
would create internal disorder and will endanger internal security during the war by exciting
popular feeling and he opined that any government in power has to suppress it, but that according
to him could not be done only by persecution … In that letter he mentioned item-wise
the steps to be taken for dealing with the situation …
During Mukherjee’s resignation speech, however, he characterised the policies of the British
government towards the movement as “repressive”.==Political career after independence==Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru inducted Mukherjee
into the Interim Central Government as a Minister for Industry and Supply on 15 August 1947.
Mukherjee began to have differences with Mahasabha after the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi,
in which the organisation was blamed by Sardar Patel for creating the atmosphere that led
to the killing. Mukherjee suggested the organisation suspend its political activities. Shortly
after it did, in December 1948, he left. One of his reasons was the rejection of his proposal
to allow non-Hindus to become members.Mukherjee resigned along with K.C. Neogy from the Cabinet
on 8 April 1950 over a disagreement about the 1950 Delhi Pact with Pakistani Prime Minister
Liaquat Ali Khan. Mukherjee was firmly against their joint pact
to establish minority commissions and guarantee minority rights in both countries as he thought
it left Hindus in East Bengal to the mercy of Pakistan. While addressing a rally in Calcutta
on 21 May, he stated that an exchange of population and property at governmental level on regional
basis between East Bengal and the states of Tripura, Assam, West Bengal and Bihar was
the only option in the current situation.After consultation with M. S. Golwalkar of the Rashtriya
Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), Mukherjee founded the Bharatiya Jana Sangh on 21 October 1951
in Delhi, becoming its first president. In the 1952 elections, the Bharatiya Jana Sangh
(BJS) won three seats in the Parliament of India, including Mukherjee’s. He had formed
the National Democratic Party within the Parliament. It consisted of 32 members of the Lok Sabha
and 10 members of the Rajya Sabha; however, it was not recognised by the speaker as an
opposition party. The BJS was created with the objective of nation-building and “nationalising”
all non-Hindus by “inculcating Bharatiya Culture” in them. The party was ideologically close
to the RSS and widely considered the proponent of Hindu nationalism.==Opinion on special status of Jammu and
Kashmir==Mukherjee was strongly opposed to Article
370, seeing it as a threat to national unity. He fought against it inside and outside the
parliament with one of the goals of Bharatiya Jana Sangh being its abrogation. He raised
his voice strongly against the provision in his Lok Sabha speech on 26 June 1952. He termed
the arrangements under the article as Balkanization of India and the three-nation theory of Sheikh
Abdullah. The state was granted its own flag along with a prime minister whose permission
was required for anyone to enter the state. In opposition to this, Mukherjee once said
“Ek desh mein do Vidhan, do Pradhan aur Do Nishan nahi chalenge” (A single country can’t
have two constitutions, two prime ministers, and two national emblems). Bharatiya Jana
Sangh along with Hindu Mahasabha and Jammu Praja Parishad launched a massive Satyagraha
to get the provisions removed. In his letter to Nehru dated 3 February 1953, he wrote that
the issue of accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India should not be allowed to hang fire.Mukherjee
went to visit Kashmir in 1953 and observed a hunger strike to protest the law that prohibited
Indian citizens from settling within the state and mandating that they carry ID cards. Mukherjee
wanted to go to Jammu and Kashmir but, because of the prevailing permit system, he was not
given permission. He was arrested on 11 May at Lakhenpur while crossing the border into
Kashmir illegally. Although the ID card rule was revoked owing to his efforts, he died
as a detainee on 23 June 1953 under mysterious circumstances.==Personal life==
Shyama Prasad had three brothers who were: Rama Prasad who was born in 1896, Uma Prasad
who was born in 1902 and Rama Prasad Mukherjee who was born in 1906. Rama Prasad became a
judge in High Court of Calcutta while Uma became famed as a trekker and a travel writer.
He also had three sisters who were: Kamala who was born in 1895, Amala who was born in
1905 and Ramala in 1908. He was married to Sudha Devi for 11 years and had five children
– the last one, a four-month-old son, died from diphtheria. His wife died of double pneumonia
shortly afterwards in 1933 or 1934. Shyama Prasad refused to remarry after her death.
He had two sons, Anutosh and Debatosh, and two daughters, Sabita and Arati. His grandniece
Kamala Sinha served as the Minister of State for External affairs in the I. K. Gujral ministry.Shyama
Prasad was also affiliated with the Buddhist Mahabodhi Society. In 1942, he succeeded Dr.
M.N. Mukherjee to become the president of the organisation. The relics of Gautam Buddha’s
two disciples Sariputta and Maudgalyayana, discovered in the Great Stupa at Sanchi by
Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1851 and kept at the British Museum, were brought back to
India by HMIS Tir. A ceremony attended by politicians and leaders of many foreign countries
was held on the next day at Calcutta Maidan. They were handed over by Nehru to Mukherjee,
who later took these relics to Cambodia, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. Upon his return to India,
he placed the relics inside the Sanchi Stupa in November 1952.==Death==Mukherjee was arrested upon entering Kashmir
on 11 May 1953. He and two of his arrested companions were first taken to Central Jail
of Srinagar. Later they were transferred to a cottage outside the city. Mukherjee’s condition
started deteriorating and he started feeling pain in the back and high temperature on the
night between 19 and 20 June. He was diagnosed with dry pleurisy from which he had also suffered
in 1937 and 1944. The doctor Ali Mohammad prescribed him a streptomycin injection and
powders, however Mukherjee informed him that his family physician had told him that streptomycin
did not suit his system. The doctor however told him that new information about the drug
had come to light and assured him that he would be fine. On 22 June, he felt pain in
the heart region, started perspiring and started feeling like he was fainting. He was later
shifted to a hospital and provisionally diagnosed with a heart attack. He died a day later under
mysterious circumstances. The state government declared that he had died on 23 June at 3:40
a.m. due to a heart attack.His death in custody raised wide suspicion across the country and
demands for an independent enquiry were raised, including earnest requests from his mother,
Jogamaya Devi, to Nehru. The prime minister declared that he had asked a number of persons
who were privy to the facts and, according to him, there was no mystery behind Mukherjee’s
death. Devi did not accept Nehru’s reply and requested an impartial enquiry. Nehru, however,
ignored the letter and no enquiry commission was set up. Mukherjee’s death therefore remains
a matter of some controversy.Only one nurse, Rajdulari Tiku, was present by his side in
the hospital. According to her, when Mukherjee started crying in agony for a doctor, she
fetched Dr. Jagannath Zutshi. The doctor found him in a grave condition and called Dr. Ali.
Mukherjee’s condition kept deteriorating and he died at 2:25 a.m.S.C. Das claims that Mukherjee
was murdered. Atal Bihari Vajpayee claimed in 2004 that the arrest of Mukherjee in Jammu
and Kashmir was a “Nehru conspiracy”.==Legacy==
Shyama Prasad Mukherji College of University of Delhi was established in 1969 in his memory.
On 7 August 1998, the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation named a bridge after Mukherjee.
Delhi has a major road named after Mukherjee called Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Marg. Kolkata,
too, has a major road called Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Road. In 2001, the main research
funding institute of the Government of India, CSIR, instituted a new fellowship named after
him.On 22 April 2010, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi’s (MCD) newly constructed Rs. 650-crore
building, the tallest building in Delhi, was named the Doctor Syama Prasad Mukherjee Civic
Centre. It was inaugurated by Home Minister P. Chidambaram. The building, which is estimated
to cater to 20,000 visitors per day, will also house different wings and offices of
the MCD. The MCD also built the Syama Prasad Swimming Pool Complex which hosted aquatic
events during the 2010 Commonwealth Games held at New Delhi.In 2012, a flyover at Mathikere
in Bangalore City Limits was inaugurated and named the Dr Syamaprasad Mukherjee Flyover.
The International Institute of Information Technology, Naya Raipur is named after him.In
2014, a multipurpose indoor stadium built on the Goa University campus in Goa was named
after Mukherjee. In 2015, the Government of India launched Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban
Mission to drive economic, social and infrastructure development in rural areas and create 300
rurban areas to stem increasing migration to urban areas. This scheme was operationalised
in February 2016.The government of India approved the Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission
(SPMRM) with an outlay of ₹51.42 billion (US$720 million) on 16 September 2015. The
Mission was launched by the Prime Minister on 21 February 2016 at Kurubhata, Murmunda
Rurban Cluster, Rajnandgaon, Chhattisgarh. In April 2017, Ranchi College was upgraded
to Shyama Prasad Mukherjee University. In September 2017, Kolar, a town in Bhopal, Madhya
Pradesh, was renamed as Shyama Prasad Mukherji Nagar by Shivraj Singh Chauhan.Mukherjee’s
role in fighting for Bengal was featured in the movie 1946 Calcutta Killings, in which
Gajendra Chauhan played the role of Mukherjee.==See also==
List of unsolved deaths==Notes

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