Volkswagen air-cooled engine | Wikipedia audio article

The Volkswagen air-cooled engine is an air-cooled
boxer engine with four horizontally opposed cast-iron cylinders, cast aluminum alloy cylinder
heads and pistons, magnesium-alloy crankcase, and forged steel crankshaft and connecting
rods. Variations of the engine were produced by
Volkswagen plants worldwide from 1936 until 2006 for use in Volkswagen’s own vehicles,
notably the Type 1 (Beetle), Type 2 (bus, transporter), Type 3, and Type 4. Additionally, the engines were widely used
in industrial, light aircraft and kit car applications.==Type 1: 1.0–1.6 litres==
Like the Volkswagen Beetle produced after the war, the first Volkswagen Transporters
(bus) used the Volkswagen air-cooled engine, a 1.1 litre, DIN-rated 18 kW (24 PS, 24 bhp),
air-cooled four-cylinder “boxer” engine mounted in the rear. The 22-kilowatt (29 PS; 29 bhp) version became
standard in 1955, while an unusual early version of the engine which developed 25 kilowatts
(34 PS; 34 bhp) debuted exclusively on the Volkswagen Type 2 (T1) in 1959. Any examples that retain that early engine
today are true survivors – since the 1959 engine was totally discontinued at the outset,
no parts were ever made available. The second-generation Transporter, the Volkswagen
Type 2 (T2) employed a slightly larger version of the engine with 1.6 litres and 35 kilowatts
(48 PS; 47 bhp). A “T2b” Type 2 was introduced by way of gradual
change over three years. The 1971 Type 2 featured a new, 1.6-litre
engine, now with dual intake ports on each cylinder head, and was DIN-rated at 37 kilowatts
(50 PS; 50 bhp). The Volkswagen Type 3 (saloon/sedan, notch-back,
fastback) was initially equipped with a 1.5-litre engine, displacing 1,493 cubic centimetres
(91.1 cu in), based on the air-cooled flat-4 found in the Type 1. While the long block remained the same as
the Type 1, the engine cooling was redesigned reducing the height of the engine profile,
allowing greater cargo volume, and earning the nicknames of “Pancake” or “Suitcase” engine. This engine’s displacement would later increase
to 1.6 litres. Originally a single- or dual-carburetor 1.5-litre
engine (1500N, 33 kilowatts (45 PS; 44 bhp) or 1500S, 40 kilowatts (54 PS; 54 bhp)), the
Type 3 engine received a larger displacement (1.6 litres) and modified in 1968 to include
Bosch D-Jetronic electronic fuel injection as an option, making it the first mass-production
consumer cars with such a feature (some sports/luxury cars with limited production runs previously
had fuel injection).===1000===
1938-1942 KdF-Wagen 1941-1942 Volkswagen Kübelwagen===1100===
1942-1944 Volkswagen Schwimmwagen 1942-1945 Volkswagen Kübelwagen, Volkswagen
KdF-Wagen 1945–1953 Volkswagen Beetle
1950–1953 Volkswagen Type 2===1200===
The 1.2 litre engine is called Typ 122 and has a displacement of 1,192 cc (72.7 cu in). As industrial engine, its rated power is 22.8
kW (31 PS; 31 bhp) at 3000 min−1 without a governor, the highest torque 81.4 N⋅m
(60 lbf⋅ft) at 2000 min−1. With a governor set to 8% accuracy, the rated
power is 21.33 kW (29 bhp; 29 PS) at 3000 min−1, the highest torque is 69.63 N⋅m
(51 lbf⋅ft) at 2000 min−1. For other applications, the power and torque
output may vary, e.g. On the Beetle produced 41 PS (40 bhp; 30 kW)
at 3900 rpm and 88 N⋅m (65 lbf⋅ft) of torque at 2400 rpm.===1300===
1285cc Single port 1965-1970
Twin port 1971-1975. This engine was an improved version of the
early design and had dual oil pressure relief valves and a stronger crankshaft with a longer
69mm stroke. Bore diameter was the same as the 1200 at
77 mm. New cylinder heads were employed with new
intake manifold geometry.===1500===
1493cc Single port only. Similar to the 1300 except the bore was increased
to 83 mm. The cylinder head was modified slightly with
a larger opening in order to accommodate the larger cylinder diameter. 1967–1970 Volkswagen Beetle (Europe, North
America) 1967–1971 Puma===1600===
The 1.6 l engine is called Typ 126. It has a displacement of 1584 cm3. Was based on the 1500 with the cylinder bore
increased to 85.5 mm. The stroke remained unchanged at 69 mm. Single portThe 1600 single port was used on
the following models: 1966 Type 3
1968–1970 Type 2 1970 Beetle (US only)
1970 Karmann Ghia (US only)Twin portThe 1600 dual port was used on the following models: 1967-1973 Type 3
1971 onwards Type 2 (only 1971 in USA – superseded by Type 4 engine)
1971–1979 Beetle 1971–1974 Karmann Ghia
1971–1989 VW Puma==
Type 4: 1.7–2.0 litres==In 1968, Volkswagen introduced a new vehicle,
the Volkswagen Type 4. The model 411, and later the model 412, offered
many new features to the Volkswagen lineup. The Type 4 came out with a new larger, heavier,
stronger and more powerful engine based on the same design as previous Aircooled engines
but was physically larger in size and external dimensions. It was called the 1700 and had a 90 mm bore
with a 66 mm stroke (1700 cc). Most parts are not interchangeable with earlier
engines. While the VW 412 was discontinued in 1974
when sales dropped, its engine continued as the VW Bus power plant for Volkswagen Type
2s produced from 1972 to 1979: it continued in modified form in the later Vanagon which
was air-cooled from 1980 until mid-1983. 1.7 Litre –
The Type 4 engine was also used on the Volkswagen version of the Porsche 914. Volkswagen versions originally came with an
80 horsepower (60 kW) fuel-injected 1.7-litre flat-4 engine based on the Volkswagen air-cooled
engine. In Europe, the four-cylinder cars were sold
as Volkswagen-Porsches, at Volkswagen dealerships; while, in North America all 914’s were marketed
as Porsches. Porsche referred to their version of the Type
4 engine using the litre designation and not cc’s (i.e.: not 1700 like VW). One visual difference is that all Porsche
Type 4 engines have the oil dip-stick and oil fill mounted on top of the engine (where
the VW Type 2 engine application has the dip-stick mounted on the rear of the engine by way of
a long oil fill tube). 2.0 Litre –
Porsche discontinued the 914/6 variant in 1972 after production of 3,351 units; its
place in the lineup was filled by a variant powered by a new 95 metric horsepower (70
kW; 94 bhp) (USA)/85 metric horsepower (63 kW; 84 bhp)(CA)/100 metric horsepower (74
kW; 99 bhp)(ROW) 2.0-litre fuel-injected version of Volkswagen’s Type 4 engine in 1973. This engine used a longer 71 mm stroke crankshaft,
new rod bearings and new pistons to increase the cylinder bore to 94 mm. This revision was designed by Porsche and
later also used in the VW Type 2. Porsche 914 production ended in 1976. The 2.0-litre engine continued to be used
in the Porsche 912E, which provided an entry-level model until the Porsche 924 was introduced
in 1977. 1.8 Litre –
For 1974, the 914’s 1.7-litre engine was replaced by a 76 metric horsepower (56 kW; 75 bhp)
1.8-litre, and the new Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection system was added to American units
to help with emissions control. A cylinder bore increase to 93mm was made
to the otherwise unchanged 1.7 litre engine block. For the Volkswagen Type 2, 1972’s most prominent
change was a bigger engine compartment to fit the larger 1.7- to 2.0-litre engines from
the Volkswagen Type 4, and a redesigned rear end which eliminated the removable rear apron. The air inlets were also enlarged to accommodate
the increased cooling air needs of the larger engines. This all-new, larger engine is commonly called
the Type 4 engine as opposed to the previous Type 1 engine first introduced in the Type
1 Beetle. This engine was called “Type 4” because it
was originally designed for the Type 4 (411 and 412) automobiles. There is no “Type 2 engine”, because those
vehicles did not feature new engine designs when introduced. They used the “Type 1” engine from the Beetle
with minor modifications such as rear mount provisions and different cooling shroud arrangements,In
the Type 2, the Volkswagen Type 4 engine was an option from 1972. This engine was standard in models destined
for the US and Canada. Only with the Type 4 engine did an automatic
transmission become available for the first time in 1973. Both engines displaced 1.7 litres, rated at
66 metric horsepower (49 kW; 65 bhp) with the manual transmission, and 62 metric horsepower
(46 kW; 61 bhp) with the automatic. The Type 4 engine was enlarged to 1.8 litres
and 68 metric horsepower (50 kW; 67 bhp) in 1974, and again to 2.0 litres and 70 metric
horsepower (51 kW; 69 bhp) in 1976. As with all Transporter engines, the focus
in development was not on power, but on low-end torque. The Type 4 engines were considerably more
robust and durable than the Type 1 engines, particularly in Transporter service. The engine that superseded the Type 4 engine
in the late 1983 VW Bus retained Volkswagen Type 1 architecture, yet featured water-cooled
cylinder heads and cylinder jackets. The wasserboxer, Volkswagen terminology for
a water-cooled, opposed-cylinder (flat or ‘boxer engine’) was subsequently discontinued
in 1992 with the introduction of the Eurovan.==Other applications==
Beginning in 1987, Dunn-Right Incorporated of Anderson, South Carolina has made a kit
to perform the conversion of a VW engine to a compressor.===Industrial===
Volkswagen AG has officially offered these air-cooled boxer engines for use in industrial
applications since 1950, lately under its Volkswagen Industrial Motor brand. Available in 18 kilowatts (24 PS; 24 bhp),
22 kilowatts (30 PS; 30 bhp), 25 kilowatts (34 PS; 34 bhp), 31 kilowatts (42 PS; 42 bhp),
33 kilowatts (45 PS; 44 bhp) and 46 kilowatts (63 PS; 62 bhp) outputs, from displacements
of 1.2 litres (73 cu in) to 1.8 litres (110 cu in), these Industrial air-cooled engines
were officially discontinued in 1991.===Aircraft===The air-cooled opposed four-cylinder Beetle
engines have been used for other purposes as well. Limbach Flugmotoren has since 1970 produced
more than 6000 certified aircraft engines based on the Beetle engine. Sauer has since 1987 produced certified engines
for small airplanes and motorgliders, and is now also producing engines for the ultralight
community in Europe.Especially interesting is its use as an experimental aircraft engine. This type of VW engine deployment started
separately in Europe and in the US. In Europe this started in France straight
after the Second World War using the engine in the Volkswagen Kübelwagen that were abandoned
by the thousands in the country side and peaked with the JPX engine. In the US this started in the 1960s when VW
Beetle started to show up there. A number of companies still produce aero engines
that are Volkswagen Beetle engine derivatives: Limbach, Sauer, Hapi, Revmaster, Great Plains
Type 1 Front Drive, Hummel, the AeroConversions AeroVee Engine, and others. Kit planes or plans built experimental aircraft
were specifically designed to utilize these engines. The VW air-cooled engine does not require
an expensive and often complex gear reduction unit to utilize a propeller at efficient cruise
RPM. With its relative low cost and parts availability,
many experimental aircraft are designed around the VW engines.Formula V Air Racing uses aircraft
designed to get maximum performance out of a VW powered aircraft resulting in race speeds
above 160 mph.Some aircraft that use the VW engine are:====Half VW====For aircraft use a number of experimenters
seeking a small two-cylinder four-stroke engine began cutting Type 1 VW engine blocks in half,
creating a two-cylinder, horizontally opposed engine. The resulting engine produces 30 to 38 hp
(22 to 28 kW). Plans and kits have been made available for
these conversions.One such conversion is the Carr Twin, designed by Dave Carr, introduced
in January, 1975, in the Experimental Aircraft Association’s Sport Aviation magazine. The design won the John Livingston Award for
its outstanding contribution to low cost flying and also was awarded the Stan Dzik Memorial
Award for outstanding design.Other examples include the Total Engine Concepts MM CB-40
and Better Half VW. Some aircraft that use the Half VW engine

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