White nationalism | Wikipedia audio article

White nationalism is a type of nationalism
or pan-nationalism which espouses the belief that white people are a race and seeks to
develop and maintain a white national identity. Its proponents identify with and are attached
to the concept of a white nation. White nationalists say they seek to ensure
the survival of the white race, and the cultures of traditionally white ethnic groups. They hold that white people should maintain
their majority in majority-white countries, maintain their political and economic dominance,
and that their cultures should be foremost. Many white nationalists believe that miscegenation,
multiculturalism, immigration of nonwhites and low birth rates among whites are threatening
the white race, and some believe these things are being promoted as part of an attempted
white genocide.White nationalism is sometimes described as a euphemism for, or subset of,
white supremacy, and the two have been used interchangeably by journalists and other analysts. White nationalist groups espouse white separatism
and white supremacy. White separatism is the pursuit of a “white-only
state”; supremacism is the belief that white people are superior to nonwhites, taking ideas
from social Darwinism and Nazism. White nationalists generally avoid the term
“supremacy” because it has negative connotations.Critics argue that the term “white nationalism” and
ideas such as white pride exist solely to provide a sanitized public face for white
supremacy, and that most white nationalist groups promote racial violence.==Views==
White nationalists claim that culture is a product of race, and advocate for the self-preservation
of white people. White nationalists seek to ensure the survival
of (what they see as) the white race, and the cultures of historically white nations. They hold that white people should maintain
their majority in mainly-white countries, maintain their dominance of its political
and economic life, and that their culture should be foremost. Many white nationalists believe that miscegenation,
multiculturalism, mass immigration of non-whites and low birth rates among whites are threatening
the white race, and some argue that it amounts to white genocide.Political scientist Samuel
P. Huntington described white nationalists as arguing that the demographic shift in the
United States towards non-whites would bring a new culture that is intellectually and morally
inferior. White nationalists claim that this demographic
shift brings affirmative action, immigrant ghettos and declining educational standards. Most American white nationalists say immigration
should be restricted to people of European ancestry.White nationalists embrace a variety
of religious and non-religious beliefs, including various denominations of Christianity, generally
Protestant, although some specifically overlap with white nationalist ideology (Christian
Identity, for example, is a family of white supremacist denominations), Germanic neopaganism
(e.g. Wotanism) and atheism.===Definitions of whiteness===
Most white nationalists define white people in a restricted way. In the United States, it often—though not
exclusively—implies European ancestry of non-Jewish descent. Some white nationalists draw on 19th-century
racial taxonomy. White nationalist Jared Taylor has argued
that Jews can be considered “white”, although this is controversial within white nationalist
circles. Many white nationalists oppose Israel and
Zionism, while some, such as William Daniel Johnson and Taylor, have expressed support
for Israel and have drawn parallels between their ideology and Zionism.Different racial
theories, such as Nordicism and Germanism, define different groups as white, both excluding
some southern and eastern Europeans because of a perceived racial taint. Pan-Aryanism defines whites as individuals
native to Europe, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Western Asia
who are wholly of Caucasian lineage or are overwhelmingly from the following Caucasian
ethnic groups, or any combination thereof: Indo-European (“Aryan”, including the Iranian
and Indo-Aryan peoples), Old European (e.g. Basque), or Hamitic (in modern times supposedly
confined to Berbers).==Regional movements=====Australia===
The White Australia policy was semi-official government policy in Australia until the mid
twentieth century. It restricted non-white immigration to Australia
and gave preference to British migrants over all others. The Barton Government, which won the first
elections following Federation in 1901, was formed by the Protectionist Party with the
support of the Australian Labor Party (ALP). The support of the Labor Party was contingent
upon restricting non-white immigration, reflecting the attitudes of the Australian Workers’ Union
and other labor organizations at the time, upon whose support the Labor Party was founded. The first Parliament of Australia quickly
moved to restrict immigration to maintain Australia’s “British character”, passing the
Pacific Island Labourers Act and the Immigration Restriction Act before parliament rose for
its first Christmas recess. The Immigration Restriction Act of 1901 limited
immigration to Australia and required a person seeking entry to Australia to write out a
passage of 50 words dictated to them in any European language, not necessarily English,
at the discretion of an immigration officer. Barton argued in favour of the bill: “The
doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman
and the Chinaman.” The passage chosen for the test could often
be very difficult, so that even if the test was given in English, a person was likely
to fail. The test enabled immigration officials to
exclude individuals on the basis of race without explicitly saying so. Although the test could theoretically be given
to any person arriving in Australia, in practice it was given selectively on the basis of race. This test was later abolished in 1958. Australian Prime Minister Stanley Bruce supported
the White Australia policy, and made it an issue in his campaign for the 1925 Australian
Federal election. It is necessary that we should determine what
are the ideals towards which every Australian would desire to strive. I think those ideals might well be stated
as being to secure our national safety, and to ensure the maintenance of our White Australia
Policy to continue as an integral portion of the British Empire. We intend to keep this country white and not
allow its peoples to be faced with the problems that at present are practically insoluble
in many parts of the world. At the beginning of World War II, Prime Minister
John Curtin (ALP) expressed support for White Australia policy: “This country shall remain
forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to
establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race.”Another (ALP) Leader of
the Labor Party from 1960 to 1967 Arthur Calwell supported the White European Australia policy. This is reflected by Calwell’s comments in
his 1972 memoirs, Be Just and Fear Not, in which he made it clear that he maintained
his view that non-European people should not be allowed to settle in Australia. He wrote: I am proud of my white skin, just as a Chinese
is proud of his yellow skin, a Japanese of his brown skin, and the Indians of their various
hues from black to coffee-coloured. Anybody who is not proud of his race is not
a man at all. And any man who tries to stigmatize the Australian
community as racist because they want to preserve this country for the white race is doing our
nation great harm… I reject, in conscience, the idea that Australia
should or ever can become a multi-racial society and survive. He was the last leader of either the Labour
or Liberal party to support it.===Canada===
The Parliament of Canada passed the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923 to bar all Chinese
from coming to Canada with the exception of diplomats, students, and those granted special
permission by the Minister of Immigration. Chinese immigration to Canada had already
been heavily regulated by the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 which required Chinese immigrants
to pay a fifty dollar fee to enter the country (the fee was increased to one hundred dollars
in 1900 and to five hundred dollars in 1903). Groups such as the Asiatic Exclusion League,
which had formed in Vancouver, British Columbia on 12 August 1907 under the auspices of the
Trades and Labour Council, pressured Parliament to halt Asian immigration. The Exclusion League’s stated aim was “to
keep Oriental immigrants out of British Columbia.”The Canadian government also attempted to restrict
immigration from British India by passing an order-in-council on January 8, 1908, that
prohibited immigration of persons who “in the opinion of the Minister of the Interior”
did not “come from the country of their birth or citizenship by a continuous journey and
or through tickets purchased before leaving their country of their birth or nationality.” In practice, this applied only to ships that
began their voyages in India, because the great distance usually necessitated a stopover
in either Japan or Hawaii. These regulations came at a time when Canada
was accepting massive numbers of immigrants (over 400,000 in 1913 alone – a figure that
remains unsurpassed to this day), almost all of whom came from Europe. This piece of legislation has been called
the “continuous journey regulation”.===Germany===
The Thule Society developed out of the “Germanic Order” in 1918, and those who wanted to join
the Order in 1917 had to sign a special “blood declaration of faith” concerning their lineage:
“The signer hereby swears to the best of his knowledge and belief that no Jewish or coloured
blood flows in either his or in his wife’s veins, and that among their ancestors are
no members of the coloured races.” Heinrich Himmler, one of the main perpetrators
of the Holocaust, said in a speech in 1937: “The next decades do in fact not mean some
struggle of foreign politics which Germany can overcome or not … but a question of
to be or not to be for the white race … .” As the Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg said
on the 29th of May 1938 on the Steckelburg in Schlüchtern: “It is however certain that
all of us share the fate of Europe, and that we shall regard this common fate as an obligation,
because in the end the very existence of White people depends on the unity of the European
continent.”At the same time Nazis subdivided white people into groups, viewing the Nordics
as the “master race” (Herrenvolk) above groups like Alpine and Mediterranean peoples. Slavic peoples, such as Russians and Poles,
were considered Untermenschen instead of Aryan. Hitler’s conception of the Aryan Herrenvolk
(“Aryan master race”) explicitly excluded the vast majority of Slavs, regarding the
Slavs as having dangerous Jewish and Asiatic influences. The Nazis because of this declared Slavs to
be untermenschen (subhumans). Hitler described Slavs as “a mass of born
slaves who feel the need of a master”. Hitler declared that because Slavs were subhumans
that the Geneva Conventions were not applicable to them, and German soldiers in World War
II were thus permitted to ignore the Geneva Conventions in regard to Slavs. Hitler called Slavs “a rabbit family” meaning
they were intrinsically idle and disorganized. Nazi Germany’s propaganda minister Joseph
Goebbels had media speak of Slavs as primitive animals who were from the Siberian tundra
who were like a “dark wave of filth”. The Nazi notion of Slavs being inferior was
part of the agenda for creating Lebensraum (“living space”) for Germans and other Germanic
people in eastern Europe that was initiated during World War II under Generalplan Ost,
millions of Germans and other Germanic settlers would be moved into conquered territories
of Eastern Europe, while the original Slavic inhabitants were to be exterminated and enslaved. Nazi Germany’s ally the Independent State
of Croatia rejected the common conception that Croats were primarily a Slavic people
and claimed that Croats were primarily the descendents of the Germanic Goths. However the Nazi regime continued to classify
Croats as “subhuman” in spite of the alliance. Even among European cultures and people that
were considered Aryan, the Nazis considered the Nordic race and German culture to be superior
to other Aryan races and cultures, thus making them far less Pan-European than groups that
identify themselves as White Nationalist.===New Zealand===
Following the example of anti-Chinese poll taxes enacted by California in 1852 and by
Australian states in the 1850s, 1860s and 1870s, John Hall’s government passed the Chinese
Immigration Act 1881. This imposed a £10 tax per Chinese person
entering New Zealand, and permitted only one Chinese immigrant for every 10 tons of cargo. Richard Seddon’s government increased the
tax to £100 per head in 1896, and tightened the other restriction to only one Chinese
immigrant for every 200 tons of cargo. The Immigration Restriction Act of 1899 prohibited
the entry of immigrants who were not of British or Irish parentage and who were unable to
fill out an application form in “any European language.” The Immigration Restriction Amendment Act
of 1920 aimed to further limit Asian immigration into New Zealand by requiring all potential
immigrants not of British or Irish parentage to apply in writing for a permit to enter
the country. The Minister of Customs had the discretion
to determine whether any applicant was “suitable.” Prime Minister William Massey asserted that
the act was “the result of a deep seated sentiment on the part of a huge majority of the people
of this country that this Dominion shall be what is often called a ‘white’ New Zealand.”One
case of a well known opponent of non-British and non-European immigration to New Zealand
is that of English-born Lionel Terry who, after traveling widely to South Africa, British
Columbia and finally New Zealand and publishing a book highly critical of capitalism and Asian
immigration, shot and killed an elderly Chinese immigrant in Wellington. Terry was convicted of murder in 1905 and
sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to life incarceration in New Zealand psychiatric
institutions. A Department of External Affairs memorandum
in 1953 stated: “Our immigration is based firmly on the principle that we are and intend
to remain a country of European development. It is inevitably discriminatory against Asians
– indeed against all persons who are not wholly of European race and colour. Whereas we have done much to encourage immigration
from Europe, we do everything to discourage it from Asia.”===Paraguay===
In Paraguay, the New Australian Movement founded New Australia, a utopian socialist settlement
in 1893. Its founder, William Lane, intended the settlement
to be based on a “common-hold” instead of a commonwealth, life marriage, teetotalism,
communism and a brotherhood of Anglophone white people and the preservation of the “colour-line”. The colony was officially founded as Colonia
Nueva Australia and comprised 238 adults and children.In July 1893, the first ship left
Sydney, Australia for Paraguay, where the government was keen to get white settlers,
and had offered the group a large area of good land. The settlement had been described as a refuge
for misfits, failures and malcontents of the left wing of Australian democracy. Notable Australian individuals who joined
the colony included Mary Gilmore, Rose Summerfield and Gilbert Stephen Casey. Summerfield was the mother of León Cadogan,
a noted Paraguayan ethnologist. Due to poor management and a conflict over
the prohibition of alcohol, the government of Paraguay eventually dissolved New Australia
as a cooperative. Some colonists founded communes elsewhere
in Paraguay but others returned to Australia or moved to England. Around 2,000 descendants of the New Australia
colonists still live in Paraguay.===South Africa===
In South Africa, white nationalism was championed by the National Party starting in 1948, as
opposition to apartheid heated up. The Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act,
1959 established homelands (sometimes pejoratively referred to as Bantustans) for ten different
black African tribes. The ultimate goal of the National Party was
to move all Black South Africans into one of these homelands (although they might continue
to work in South Africa as “guest workers”), leaving what was left of South Africa (about
87 percent of the land area) with what would then be a White majority, at least on paper. As the homelands were seen by the apartheid
government as embryonic independent nations, all Black South Africans were registered as
citizens of the homelands, not of the nation as a whole, and were expected to exercise
their political rights only in the homelands. Accordingly, the three token parliamentary
seats that had been reserved for White representatives of black South Africans in Cape Province were
scrapped. The other three provinces – Transvaal, the
Orange Free State, and Natal – had never allowed any Black representation. Coloureds were removed from the Common Roll
of Cape Province in 1953. Instead of voting for the same representatives
as White South Africans, they could now only vote for four White representatives to speak
for them. Later, in 1968, the Coloureds were disenfranchised
altogether. In the place of the four parliamentary seats,
a partially elected body was set up to advise the government in an amendment to the Separate
Representation of Voters Act. During the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s,
the government implemented a policy of “resettlement”, to force people to move to their designated
“group areas”. Millions of people were forced to relocate
during this period. These removals included people relocated due
to slum clearance programs, labour tenants on White-owned farms, the inhabitants of the
so-called “black spots”, areas of Black owned land surrounded by White farms, the families
of workers living in townships close to the homelands, and “surplus people” from urban
areas, including thousands of people from the Western Cape (which was declared a “Coloured
Labour Preference Area”) who were moved to the Transkei and Ciskei homelands. The best-publicised forced removals of the
1950s occurred in Johannesburg, when 60,000 people were moved to the new township of Soweto,
an abbreviation for South Western Townships.Until 1955, Sophiatown had been one of the few urban
areas where Blacks were allowed to own land, and was slowly developing into a multiracial
slum. As industry in Johannesburg grew, Sophiatown
became the home of a rapidly expanding black workforce, as it was convenient and close
to town. It could also boast the only swimming pool
for Black children in Johannesburg. As one of the oldest black settlements in
Johannesburg, Sophiatown held an almost symbolic importance for the 50,000 Blacks it contained,
both in terms of its sheer vibrancy and its unique culture. Despite a vigorous ANC protest campaign and
worldwide publicity, the removal of Sophiatown began on 9 February 1955 under the Western
Areas Removal Scheme. In the early hours, heavily armed police entered
Sophiatown to force residents out of their homes and load their belongings onto government
trucks. The residents were taken to a large tract
of land, thirteen miles (19 km) from the city center, known as Meadowlands (that the government
had purchased in 1953). Meadowlands became part of a new planned Black
city called Soweto. The Sophiatown slum was destroyed by bulldozers,
and a new White suburb named Triomf (Triumph) was built in its place. This pattern of forced removal and destruction
was to repeat itself over the next few years, and was not limited to people of African descent. Forced removals from areas like Cato Manor
(Mkhumbane) in Durban, and District Six in Cape Town, where 55,000 coloured and Indian
people were forced to move to new townships on the Cape Flats, were carried out under
the Group Areas Act of 1950. Ultimately, nearly 600,000 coloured, Indian
and Chinese people were moved in terms of the Group Areas Act. Some 40,000 White people were also forced
to move when land was transferred from “White South Africa” into the Black homelands.Before
South Africa became a republic, politics among White South Africans was typified by the division
between the chiefly Afrikaner pro-republic conservative and the largely English anti-republican
liberal sentiments, with the legacy of the Boer War still a factor for some people. Once republican status was attained, Hendrik
Verwoerd called for improved relations and greater accord between those of British descent
and the Afrikaners. He claimed that the only difference now was
between those who supported apartheid and those in opposition to it. The ethnic divide would no longer be between
Afrikaans speakers and English speakers, but rather White and Black ethnicities. Most Afrikaners supported the notion of unanimity
of White people to ensure their safety. White voters of British descent were divided. Many had opposed a republic, leading to a
majority “no” vote in Natal. Later, however, some of them recognized the
perceived need for White unity, convinced by the growing trend of decolonization elsewhere
in Africa, which left them apprehensive. Harold Macmillan’s “Wind of Change” pronouncement
left the British faction feeling that Britain had abandoned them. The more conservative English-speakers gave
support to Verwoerd; others were troubled by the severing of ties with Britain and remained
loyal to the Crown. They were acutely displeased at the choice
between British and South African nationality. Although Verwoerd tried to bond these different
blocs, the subsequent ballot illustrated only a minor swell of support, indicating that
a great many English speakers remained apathetic and that Verwoerd had not succeeded in uniting
the White population.The Black Homeland Citizenship Act of 1970 was a denaturalization law passed
during the apartheid era of South Africa that changed the status of the inhabitants of the
Bantustans (Black homelands) so that they were no longer citizens of South Africa. The aim was to ensure that white South Africans
came to make up the majority of the de jure population.===United States===The Naturalization Act of 1790 (1 Stat. 103) provided the first rules to be followed
by the United States government in granting national citizenship. This law limited naturalization to immigrants
who were “free white persons” of “good moral character.” Major changes to this racial requirement for
US citizenship did not occur until the years following the American Civil War. In 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment to the United
States Constitution was passed to grant citizenship to black people born in the US, but it specifically
excluded untaxed Indians, because they were separate nations. However, citizenship for other non-whites
born in the US was not settled until 1898 with United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S.
649, which concluded with an important precedent in its interpretation of the Citizenship Clause
of the Fourteenth Amendment. This racial definition of American citizenship
has had consequences for perceptions of American identity.Throughout the 19th and early 20th
centuries, racial definitions of the American nation were still common, resulting in race-specific
immigration restrictions, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act. Groups such as the Asiatic Exclusion League,
formed on 14 May 1905 in San Francisco, California by 67 labor unions and supported by labor
leaders (and European immigrants) Patrick Henry McCarthy of the Building Trades Council
of San Francisco, Andrew Furuseth and Walter McCarthy of the Sailor’s Union, attempted
to influence legislation restricting Asian immigration. During the controversy surrounding the All
of Mexico Movement, Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina stated “We have never dreamt
of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race… Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race.” Ever since the Confederate States of America’s
loss in the Civil War, the people who had lived in those states at the time—no matter
what race they were—had to start the fight for jobs, power, and other more unimportant
things against each other within their own states. At this point in the 18th century United States,
the white population had felt an incessant need to be superior to, and more successful
than, blacks—both from social and economic standpoints. Before the war, whites were easily above blacks;
however, now slavery was abolished. Although this did not mean that blacks were
now equal to whites by any means, it was just the beginning of the many steps to achieving
minority equality. For now, blacks were at least not considered
property of the white man throughout the southern states. This, consequently, instilled fear in the
white population—would their race not reign supreme forever? Whenever a group is afraid of losing its identity
and power, especially if it is over another group of people, the former proceeds to make
radical moves to keep its position over the former. Weakness was not an option. Following the defeat of the Confederate States
of America, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was founded as an insurgent group with the goal of maintaining
the Southern racial system throughout the Reconstruction Era. The creation of this group was able to instill
fear in African Americans while, in some cases, filling white Americans with pride in their
race and reassurance in the fact that they will stay ‘on top’. The message they gave to people around them
was that, even though the Confederate States did not exist anymore, the same principle
remained in their minds: whites were superior. Although the first incarnation of the KKK
was focused on maintaining the Antebellum South, its second incarnation in the 1915-1940s
period was much more oriented towards white nationalism and American nativism, with slogans
such as “One Hundred Percent Americanism” and “America for Americans”, in which “Americans”
were understood to be white and Protestant. The 1915 film The Birth of a Nation is an
example of an allegorical invocation of white nationalism during this time, and its positive
portrayal of the first KKK is considered to be one of the factors which led to the emergence
of the second KKK.The second KKK was founded in Atlanta, Georgia in 1915 and, starting
in 1921, it adopted a modern business system of recruiting. The organization grew rapidly nationwide at
a time of prosperity. Reflecting the social tensions of urban industrialization
and vastly increased immigration, its membership grew most rapidly in cities and spread out
of the South to the Midwest and West. The second KKK called for strict morality
and better enforcement of prohibition. Its rhetoric promoted anti-Catholicism and
nativism. Some local groups took part in attacks on
private houses and carried out other violent activities. The violent episodes were generally in the
South. The second KKK was a formal fraternal organization,
with a national and state structure. At its peak in the mid-1920s, the organization
claimed to include about 15% of the nation’s eligible population, approximately 4 to 5
million men. Internal divisions, criminal behavior by leaders,
and external opposition brought about a collapse in membership, which had dropped to about
30,000 by 1930. It faded away in the 1940s.Starting in the
1960s, white nationalism grew in the US as the conservative movement developed in mainstream
society. Samuel P. Huntington argues that it developed
as a reaction to a perceived decline in the essence of American identity as European,
Anglo-Protestant and English-speaking. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
had opened entry to the US to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic
groups, and as a result it would significantly, and unintentionally, alter the demographic
mix in the US.The slogan “white power” was popularized by American Nazi Party leader
George Lincoln Rockwell, who used the term in a debate with Stokely Carmichael of the
Black Panther Party after Carmichael issued a call for “black power”. Rockwell advocated a return to white control
of all American institutions, and violently opposed any minority advancement. He rejected the Nazi idea of “master race”,
however, and accepted all white European nationalities in his ideology, including Turks.One influential
white nationalists in the United States was William Luther Pierce, who founded the National
Alliance in 1974.In the United States a movement calling for white separatism emerged in the
1980s. Leonard Zeskind has chronicled the movement
in his book Blood and Politics, in which he argues that it has moved from the “margins
to the mainstream”.During the 1980s the United States also saw an increase in the number
of neo-völkisch movements. According to Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, these
movements cover a wide variety of mutually influencing groups of a radically ethnocentric
character which have emerged, especially in the English-speaking world, since World War
II. These loose networks revive or imitate the
völkisch movement of 19th and early 20th century Germany in their defensive affirmation
of white identity against modernity, liberalism, immigration, multiracialism, and multiculturalism. Some are neo-fascist, neo-Nazi or Third Positionist;
others are politicised around some form of white ethnic nationalism or identity politics,
and a few have national anarchist tendencies. One example is the neo-tribalist paganism
promoted by Else Christensen’s Odinist Fellowship. Especially notable is the prevalence of devotional
forms and esoteric themes, so neo-völkisch currents often have the character of new religious
movements. Included under the neo-völkisch umbrella
are movements ranging from conservative revolutionary schools of thought (Nouvelle Droite, European
New Right, Evolian Traditionalism) to white supremacist and white separatist interpretations
of Christianity and paganism (Christian Identity, Creativity, Nordic racial paganism) to neo-Nazi
subcultures (Esoteric Hitlerism, Nazi Satanism, National Socialist black metal). More recently, the alt-right, a broad term
covering many different far-right ideologies and groups in the United States, some of which
endorse white nationalism, has gained traction as an alternative to mainstream conservatism
in its national politics. The comic book super hero Captain America,
in an ironic co-optation, has been used for dog whistle politics by the alt-right in college
campus recruitment in 2017.====Relationships with black separatist groups
====In February 1962 George Lincoln Rockwell,
the leader of the American Nazi Party, spoke at a Nation of Islam (NOI) rally in Chicago,
where he was applauded by Elijah Muhammad as he pronounced: “I am proud to stand here
before black men. I believe Elijah Muhammed is the Adolf Hitler
of the black man!” Rockwell had attended, but did not speak at,
an earlier NOI rally in Washington, D.C. in June 1961, and once he even donated $20 to
the NOI. In 1965, after breaking with the Nation of
Islam and denouncing its separatist doctrine, Malcolm X told his followers that the Nation
of Islam under Elijah Muhammad had made secret agreements with the American Nazi Party and
the Ku Klux Klan.Rockwell and other white supremacists (e.g. Willis Carto) also supported
less well-known black separatist groups, such as Hassan Jeru-Ahmed’s Blackman’s Army of
Liberation, in reference to which Rockwell told Los Angeles Times reporter Michael Drosnin
in 1967 that if “Any Negro wants to go back to Africa, I’ll carry him piggy-back.”More
recently, Tom Metzger, erstwhile Ku Klux Klan leader from California, spoke at a NOI rally
in Los Angeles in September 1985 and donated $100 to the group. In October of that same year, over 200 prominent
white supremacists met at former Klan leader Robert E. Miles’s farm to discuss an alliance
with Louis Farrakhan, head of the NOI. In attendance were Edward Reed Fields of the
National States’ Rights Party, Richard Girnt Butler of the Aryan Nations, Don Black, Roy
Frankhouser, and Metzger, who said that “America is like a rotting carcass. The Jews are living off the carcass like the
parasites they are. Farrakhan understands this.”==Criticism==
Numerous individuals and organizations have argued that ideas such as white pride and
white nationalism exist merely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy. Kofi Buenor Hadjor argues that black nationalism
is a response to racial discrimination, while white nationalism is the expression of white
supremacy. Other critics have described white nationalism
as a “…somewhat paranoid ideology” based upon the publication of pseudo-academic studies.Carol
M. Swain argues that the unstated goal of white nationalism is to appeal to a larger
audience, and that most white nationalist groups promote white separatism and racial
violence. Opponents accuse white nationalists of hatred,
racial bigotry and destructive identity politics. White supremacist groups have a history of
perpetrating hate crimes, particularly against people of Jewish or African descent. Examples include the lynching of black people
by the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Some critics argue that white nationalists—while
posturing as civil rights groups advocating the interests of their racial group—frequently
draw on the nativist traditions of the KKK and the British National Front. Critics have noted the anti-semitic rhetoric
used by some white nationalists, as highlighted by the promotion of conspiracy theories such
as Zionist Occupation Government.==Notable organizations====Notable individuals====Notable media====See also====
References==Notes Bibliography Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations. Geneva: INUPRESS. ISBN 0-9656383-2-4. Josey, Charles Conant (1983) [1923]. The Philosophy of Nationalism. Washington, D.C.: Cliveden Press. ISBN 1-878465-10-4. Levin, Michael E. (1997). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What
They Mean. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-95789-6. McDaniel, George (ed.) (2003). A Race Against Time: Racial Heresies for the
21st Century. Oakton, VA: New Century Foundation.CS1 maint:
Extra text: authors list (link) Robertson, Wilmot (1981). The Dispossessed Majority. Cape Canaveral, FL: Howard Allen. ISBN 0-914576-15-1. Robertson, Wilmot (1993). The Ethnostate. Cape Canaveral, FL: Howard Allen. ISBN 0-914576-22-4. Swain, Carol M. (2003). Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism in
America. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01693-2.

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